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THE Lll-KAiii 


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Clje Sfafelugt ^otitt^. 



No. LXI. 


q (0 > 4 










OTit]^ Kotes antJ an Kntrotiucticn, 



VOL. n. 


(books V, VI, AND VIl). 







Colonel H. YULE, C.B., President. 


\- Vice-Presidents. 
Major-Geneeal Sir HENRY RAWLINSON, K.C.B. j 


Rev. De. G. P. BADGER, D.C.L. 

J. BARROW, Esq. 


E. H. BUNBURY, Esq. 

The Eael of DUCIE. 

Captain HANKEY, R.N. 

Lieut.-Geneeal Sir J. HENRY LEFROY, C.B., K.C.M.G. 

R. H. MAJOR, Esq. 

Rear-Admieal MAYNE, C.B. 

Colonel Sir WM. L. MEREWETHER, C.B., K.C.S.I. 




The Lord STANLEY of Alderlet. 


Lieut.-General Sir HENRY THUILLIER, C.S.I. 

CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, C.B. , Honorary Secketaky. 



Analytical Table of Contents . . . i 

The Moral HisTopy. Fifth Book . . . 298 

„ „ Sixth Book . . .390 


Seventh Book . . 448 

Contents of the Index .... 535 
Index ...... 535 


The two Volumes are paged throughout, and the Index is at the 
end of the Second Volume. 



Prologue to the following Books - - - 296 

Chapter 1. — That the pride and malice of the Divell hath been the 

cause of idolatrie. 

Scriptural evidence of the Devil's pride - - 298 

He hath retired into remote parts - - - 299 

Always inventing idolatries - - - - 300 

Chapter 2. — Of many kinds of idolatry the Indians have used. 

Worship of elements called Huaca - - - 301 

Idolatry of images or of the dead . _ . 301 

Chapter 3. — That the Indians have some knowledge of God. 

Peruvians acknowledge a Supreme Being - - 301 

There is no name for God among them - - 302 

Offerings to Viracocha by Peruvians - - - 303 

Difficulty in dealing with idolaters - - - 303 

Chapter 4. — On the first kinde of idolatrie^ upon naturall and 

universcdl things. 

Adoration of the sun _ _ - _ 303 

Worship of thunder and lightning - - - 304 

Of the earth, rainbow, and stars - - - 305 

Names of stars - - _ _ . 305 

Mexican worship of Vitzilipuztli - ' - - 305 

The sin of idolatry ... . . 3O6 


Chapter 5. — Of the idolatry of the Indians used to particular 


The Devil has also made them worship base things - 307 

Peruvians worship all things in nature - - 308 

Belief in a deity of all best things of their kind - - 308 

The Apachitas or votive heaps _ . . 309 

An Ynca sceptic touching the sun - - - 310 

Chapter 6. — Of another hind of idolatry upon the dead. 

Mourning for the dead becomes idolatry - - 311 

Images and mummies of the dead - - - 312 

Chapter 7. — Of the superstitions they used to the dead. 

Peruvian belief in a future state - - - 313 

They carefully preserved dead bodies - - - 313 

Human sacrifices to the dead - - - 314 

Food and clothes placed with the dead- - - 315 

Chapter 8. — Of the manner of burying the dead among the 
Mexicaine and sundrie other nations. 

In Mexico the priests interred the dead - - 315 

Custom of burning the dead - - - 315 

The servants of a great man killed at his funeral - 316 

Chapter 9. — The fourth and last kinde of idolatry the Indians 
used, especially the Mexicaines^ to images and idolls. 

The Holy Ghost condemns worship of images - - 317 

The idol of Vitzilipuztli in Mexico - - - 318 

Temple of the Mexican idol - - - - 3 1 9 

Dress and form of the image _ _ - 320 

Idol of Quetzaalcoatl in Cholula _ . - 321 

Feast in Tlascala - - - - 322 

Chapter 10. — Of a strange manner of idolatry practised amongst 

the Mexicaines. 

Intended victims worshipped as the idol - - 323 


Chapter 11. — How the Dwell hath laboured to make himself equall 
unto God, and to imitate him. in his sacrifices, religion, cmd 


The Devil strives to imitate the religion of God - - 324 

Scarce anything that the Devil has not counterfeited - 325 

Chapter 12. — Of the temples that were found at the Indies. 

In every province of Peru there was a chief Huaca - 325 

The great temple at Cuzco - - - - 326 

The golden image of the sun _ _ . 326 

Chapter 13. — Of the Proud Temples at Mexico. 

Famous temple of Vitzilipuztli - - - 327 

Description of the temple - - - - 328 

Other temples in Mexico . _ _ _ 329 

Chapter 14. — Of the Priests and their ojices. 

Mexicans had several grades of priests - - 330 

Their duties - - - - - 331 

Chapter 15. — Of the Monastery of Virgi7is, 

Many convents of virgins in Peru - .. . 332 

Duties of the virgins - - . _ 332 

Keligious women in Mexico - - - - 333 

Chapter 16. — Of the Monasteries of religious men that the Devill 
hath invented for superstition. 

Letters from Jesuits in Japan touching the Bonzes - 334 

In Peru there were no monasteries for men - - 335 

In Mexico there were houses of secluded men - - 336 

Little boys as novices in Mexico - - - 336 

Dress and penance of Mexican monks - - - 337 

Chapter 17. — Of Penance and Strictnes the Indians have used at 

the DivelVs persuasion. 

Penance of Mexican priests - - - - 339 

Discipline at feast of Tezcatlipuca - - - 339 

Peruvian fasts ----- 339 

h 2 


Chapter 18. — Of the sacrifices the Indians 'made to the Bivell, and 


Peruvian sacrifices of shells, coca, etc. - - 340 

Sacrifice of animals - - - - 341 

Sacrifices of first fruits - - - - 343 

Chapter 19. — Of the sacrifices they made of men. 

Human sacrifices in Peru - - - - 344 

Malice of the Devil - - - - 345 

Chapter 20. — Of the horrible sacrifices of men which the Mexicans 


Mexicans sacrificed captives - - - - 346 

The manner of sacrificing - - - 347 

Dress of the priests _ _ . _ 348 

The bodies cast down a flight of steps - - - 349 

Chapter 21. — Of another kind of sacrificing of 7nen which the 

Mexicaines used. 

The flaying of men - - - - 350 

The victim reverenced as a God - - - 351 

Captives sought for to sacrifice - - - 352 

Chapter 22. — How the Indians grew weary and could not endure 

the cruelty of Satha^i. 

The Indians desire to be freed from priestly yoke - 352 

Spaniards resolved to abolish the sacrifices - - 353 

A victim spoke after his heart was cut out - - 353 

Chapter 23. — How the Divell hath laboured to imitate and counttr- 
feite the Sacraments of the Holy Church. 

Solemn feast of Ray mi in Peru - - - 354 

Feast of Situa ----- 355 
Ceremony resembling communion - - - 355 


Chapter 24. — In tvhat manner the Divell hath laboured to counter- 

feite the feast of the Holy Sacrament and Communion used 

in the Holy Church. 

Mexican virgins make the image of their God of paste and 

honey - - . - - - 356 

Procession of the idol - - - - 357 

The paste offered to the idol - _ _ 353 

After the ceremony the paste is eaten - - - 359 

Chapter 25. — Of Confessors and Confession which the Indians 


Confession most general in the Collao - - - 361 

The Ynca only confessed to the sun - - - 361 

Practices of sorcerers - - - - 362 

Confession in Japan - - - - 363 

Chapter 26. — Of the abominable unction which the Mexicaine 
Friestes and other nations used, and of their witchcraftes. 

Mexican priests anointed - ^ - - - 364 

Method of preparing the nnction . _ _ 355 

Eeputed power of the unction _ _ _ 355 

Sorcerers in Peru - - - - - 367 

Their divination ----- 368 

Chapter 27. — Of the ceremonies and customs of the Indians which 

are like unto ours. 

Their baptisms and marriages - - - 369 

Mexican marriage and divorce - - - 370 

Numerous idols in Mexico and Peru - - - 371 

Chapter 28. — Of some Feasts celebrated by them of Cusco, and how 
the Divell would imitate the mysterie of the Holy Trinitie. 

Peruvian feast of Raymi - - - - 372 

Peruvian Trinity - - - - - 372 

Other months and feasts of the Peruvians - - 374 

Feast of Situa - - - - - 375 


Chapter 29. — Of the feast of Jubilee wliicli the Mexicaines 

Feast of Tezcatlipuca - - - 377 to 384 

Chapter 30. — Of the Feast of Mar chants which those of Chobetecas 

Feast of Quetzalcoatl - - - - 384 

Mexican festivals ----- 385 

Chapter 31. — What profit may be drawne out of this discourse of 

the Indians super'stitioois. 

Profit from the study of Indian superstitions - - 388 


Chapter 1. — That they erre in their opinion which hold the Indians 

to want Judgment. 

Ill-treatment of the Indians - - - 390 

Authorities for Peru and Mexico - - - 391 

Chapter 2. — Of the method of computing time and the Kalendar 

the Mexicaines used. 
Mexican calendar - - . . . 392 

Chapter 3. — How the Kings Yncas accounted the y eaves and 

Peruvian calendar - - . . 395 

Chapter 4. — That no nation of the Indies hath beene found to have 

had, the use of letters. 

Letters unknown in America - - - 397 

Chapter 5. — Of the fashion of letters and booJces the Chinois used. 
Chinese vvriting - - . _ 399 


Chapter 6. — Of the schools and universities in China. 
Chinese learning - - - - - 401 

Chapter 7. — Of the fashion of letters and writings which the Mexi- 

caines used. 
Mexican picture writing . - - - 403 

Mexican records ----- 404 

Chapter 8. — Of Registers and the manner of reckoning which the 

Indians of Peru used. 
Peruvian Quipus ----- 406 

Chapter 9. — Of the order the Indians holde in their writing. 
Various ways of writing - - , - - 408 

Chapter 10. — How the Indians dispatched their messengers. 
Use of messengers _ . _ - 409 

Chapter 11. — Of the manner of government and of the Kings 
which the Indians had. 

Government in various countries - - - 410 

Mexico and Peru compared - - - - 411 

Chapter 12. — Of the Government of the Kings Yncas of Peru. 

Ynca ceremonies - - - - - 412 

Ynca government - - - - 413 

Chapter 13. — Of the distrihutioii the Yncas made of their vassals. 
Divisions of the Ynca Empire - - - 414 

Chapter 14. — Of the edifices and maner of buildings of the Yncas. 

Ynca edifices - - - - - 415 

Ynca bridges - - - - -416 

Chapter 15. — Of the Yncas revenues, and the order of Tributes they 

imposed upon the Iiidians. 

Ynca revenue and tribute - - - - 418 

Flocks of llamas ----- 420 


CiiArTER 16. — Of arts and offices which the Indians did exercise. 

Arts and handicrafts - - - - 421 

Head dresses ----- 422 

Chapter 17. — Of the posts and Chasquis the Indians did use. 
Posts and messengers _ _ - - 423 

Chapter 18. — Of the justice, laives, and 2)unishments ivhich the 

Yncas have established, and of their marriages. 

Ynca marriages ----- 424 

Chapter 19. — Of the Original I of the Yncas, Lords of Peru, with 

their conquests and victories. 
Indian Governments - . _ . 426 

Extent of the Ynca Empire - - - - 427 

Origin of the Yncas - - - - 428 

Chapter 20. — Of the first Ynca, and his Successors. 
Lineage of the Yncas - - - - 429 

Chapter 21. — Of Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui and what happened in 
his time unto Guaynacapa. 

Ynca traditions - - - - - 430 

Manners of the Yncas . _ . _ 432 

Chapter 22. — Of the greatest and most famous Ynca ccdled 

Conquests of Huayna Ccapac - - - 433 

The body of Huayna Ccapac sent to Lima - - 434 

Deatli of Huascar - - - - 434 

Chapter 23. — Of the last Successors Yncas. 

Manco Ynca - - - _ _ 435 

Execution of Tupac Amaru - - - - 435 

Succession of Yncas > - _ .. 43(3 

Chapter 2 [.--Of the vuDtner of the Mexicans common-ueal. 
Mexican succession - . _ _ 43(5 


Chapter 25. — Of the titles and dignities the Indians used. 
Mexican nobility ----- 438 

Chapter 26. — How the Mexicaines made war^ and of their orders 

of Knighthood. 
Mexican warfare ----- 440 
Mexican knighthood - - - . - 441 

Chapter 27. — Of the great order and diligence the Mexicaines used 

to instruct their youth. 

Schools in the Mexican temples - - . - 442 

Training for soldiers and priests - _ - 443 

Chapter 28. — Of the Indians feasts and dances. 

Dances in Peru - - - - - 444 

Dances in Mexico - - - - 445 

Music and dancing - . . . 446 


Chapter 1. — That it is profitable to understand the action of the 
India7is, especially the Mexicans. 

Profit to be derived from history - - _ 443 

Chapter 2. — Of the ancient inhabita^its of New Spaine^ and how 
the Navatlacas came thither. 

Chichemecas, the first inhabitants of Mexico - - 449 

Habits of the wild people - - - - 450 

Invasion of the Navatlacas - - - - 451 

Chapter 3, —Hoiv the six Lineages of Navatlacas peopled the land 

of Mexico. 

Lineages of the Navatlacas - - - - 452 

War between Tlascaltecas and Chichimecas - - 453 

Peopling of America - - _ , 455 


Chapter 4. — Of the Mexicaines departure, of their journey , and 
peopling of the Province of Mechoacan. 

Migration of the Mexicans - - - - 456 

Chapter 5. — Of that which happened in Malinalca in Tula^ and in 


Continued migration of the Mexicans - - - 459 

Chapter 6. — Of the Warres the Mexicaines had against them of 


Mexicans and the King of Culhuacan - - - 461 

Continued march . _ - . 462 

Chapter 7. — Of the foundation of Mexico. 

Foundation of Tenoxtitlan or Mexico - - - 463 

Division of the city into quarters . _ _ 464 

Chapter 8. — Of the sedition of those of Tlatelulco, and of the first 
Kings the Mexicaines did choose. 

Sedition of Tlatelulco _ _ . _ 465 

First Mexican King - - - - 466 

Chapter 9. — Of the strange tribute the Mexicaines paid to them of 


Mexican tribute to Azcapuzalco - - - 468 

Floating gardens - - - - -469 

Death of the first Mexican King - - - 470 

Chapter 10. — Of the second King, and what happened in his 

The second Mexican King - -' - - 471 

Death of the second King - - - - 472 

Chapter 11. — Of Ghimalpopoca, the third king, aiid his cruell 
death, and the occasion of the loarre which the Mexi- 
caines made. 
The third Mexican King - - - - 473 

Power of Mexican Kings - - - - 474 

Murder of the third Mexican King - - - 475 


Chapter 12. — Of the fourth King called Izcoalt, and of the war 
against the Tepanecas. 

The fourth Mexican King - - - - 477 

The warrior Tlacaellel - - - - 478 

Chapter 1 3. — Of the hattell the Mexicaines gave to the Tepa- 
necas, and of the victory they obtained - - 480 

Chapter 14. — Of the tvarre and victory the Mexicaines had 

against the Cittie of Guyoacaii - - - 483 

Chapter 15. — Of the warre and victorie the Mexicaines had 

against the Suchimilcos _ - _ 485 

Chapter 16. — Of the fift King of Mexico , called Monte- 
zuma, the first of that name - _ . 488 

Chapter 1 7 . — How Tlacaellel refused to be King, and of the 

election and deedes of Ticocic - - - 491 

Chapter 18. — Of the death of Tlacaellel, and the deedes of 

Axayaca, the seventh King of the Mexicaines - - 494 

Chapter 19. — Of the deedes of Autzol, the eighth King of 


Accession of the eighth king - - - 497 

Conquests of Autzol - - - - 497 

Macliinations of a sorcerer - - - . 498 

Water brought to Mexico - - - - 499 

Chapter 20. — Of the election of great Montezuma, the last King of 

Character of Montezuma - - ., . 500 

Speech of the King of Tezcuco ... 501 

Reply of Montezuma - , - . 502 


Chapter 21. — How Montezuma ordered the service of his house, and 
of the ivarre he made for his coronation. 

Household of Montezuma - - - - 503 

Coronation of Montezuma - - - - 504 

Chapter 22. — Of the behaviour and greatnes of Montezuma. 
Government of Montezuma _ _ . 505 

Chapter 23. — Of the presages and strange 2)rodigies v)hich hap2')ened 
in Mexico before the fall of their Empire. 

Signs and wonders . . _ . 506 

Credibility of omens - - - - 507 

A talking stone - - - - - 509 

Strans'e omens - - - - - 510 


Chapter 24. — Of the newes Montezuma received of the Spaniards 
arrival in his countrey, and of the Ambassage he sent them. 

Arrival of the Spaniards - - - - 513 

Reception of Cortes - - - - 514 

Keturn of the ambassadors - - - - 515 

Terror of Montezuma - - - - 516 

Chapter 25. — Of the Spaniards entrie into Mexico. 

Montezuma's strategy - - - - 517 

Meeting of Cortes and Montezuma - - - 518 

Interview with Montezuma - - - 519 

Chapter 26. — Of the death of Montezuma and the Spaniards 
departure out of Mexico. 

Rising of the Mexicans - - - - 520 

Death of Montezuma - - - - 522 

Retreat of the Spaniards . - - - 522 

Submission of the Mexicans - - - 523 


Chapter 27. — Of some miracles which God hath shovjed at the 
Indies in favour of the faith, beyond the desert of those that 

wrought them. 

Santa Cruz de la Sierra - . - - 524 

Curing by miracles . . - - 525 

Miracle at the siege of Cuzco - - - 526 

Divine interposition on the side of the Spaniards - 526 

Chapter 28. — Of the manner how the Divine Providence disposed 
of the Indies, to give an entrie to the Christian Religion, 

Designs of Providence - - - - 527 

Importance of large monarchies . _ - 528 

Difficulty in converting small tribes - - - 528 

Divisions among the natives a great help - - 529 

Gallantry of the Araucans - - - - 529 

Aids to conversion - - - - 530 

Defeat of Satan - - _ _ - 531 

Fruits of conversion - - - - 532 

Conclusion _ _ . - - 533 

A Prologue to the Bookes following. 

Having intreated of the Natural History of the Indies, 
I will hereafter discourse of the Morall History, that is to 
say of the deeds and customes of the Indians. For after the 
heaven, the temperature, the scituation, and the qualities of 
the new world ; after the elements and mixtures — I mean 
mettals, plants, and beasts, whereof we have spoken in the 
former Bookes, as occasion did serve ; both Order and 
Reason doth invite vs to continue and vndertake the dis- 
course of those men which inhabite the new world. And 
therefore I pretend in the following bookes to speake what 
I thinke worthie of this subiect. And for that the intention 
of this Historie is not onely to give knowledge of what 
hath passed at the Indies, but also to continue this know- 
ledge, to the fruite we may gather by it, which is to helpe 
this people for their soules health, and to glorifie the 
Creator and Redeemer, who hath drawne them from the 
obscure darkenes of their infidelitie, and imparted vnto 
them the admirable light of his Gospel. And therefore I 
will first speake in these bookes following what concernes 
their religion or superstition, their customes, their idolatries, 
and their sacrihces ; and after, what concerned their policie 


and government_, their lawes, customes, and their deedes. 
And for that the memorie is preserved amongst the Mexi- 
caine Nation, of their beginnings, successions, warres, and 
other things worthie the relation; besides that which shall 
be handled in the sixt booke, I will make a peculiar Dis- 
course in the seventh, shewing the disposition and fore- 
warnings this Nation had of the new Kingdome of Christ 
our Lord, which should be extended in these Countries, and 
should conquer them to himselfe, as he hath done in all the 
rest of the world. The which in truth is a thing worthie of 
great consideration, to see how the divine providence hath 
appointed that the light of his word should finde a passage 
in the furthest boundes of the world. It is not my proiect 
at this time to write what the Spaniardes have done in 
those partes, for there are bookes enow written vpon this 
subiect, nor yet how the Lordes servants have laboured 
and profited, for that requires a new labour. I will onely 
content ray selfe to plant this Historic and relation at the 
doores of the Gospel, seeing it is alreadie entered, and to 
make knowne the Naturall and Morall things of the Indies, 
to the end that Christianitie may be planted and augmented, 
as it is expounded at large in the bookes we have written, 
De procuranda Indiorum salute. And if any one wonder at 
some fashions and customes of the Indies, and wil scorne 
them as fooles, or abhorre them as divelish and inhumane 
people, let him remember that the same things, yea, worse, 
have beene scene amongst the Greekes and Romans, who 
have commanded the whole world, as we may easily vnder- 


standi not onely of our Authors^ as Eusebius of Cesarea, 
Clement of Alexandria, and others^, but also of their owne, 
as Plinie^ Dionysius of Halicarnaus, and Plutarke : for the 
Prince of darkness being the head of all Infidelities it is no 
new thing to finde among Infidells, cruelties, filthines, and 
follies fit for such a master. And although the ancient Gen- 
tiles have farre surpassed these of the new world in valour 
and naturall knowledge, yet may wee observe many things 
in them woorthie the remembrance. But to conclude, they 
shew to be barbarous people, who being deprived of the 
supernaturall light, want likewise philosophie and natural 



Of the Naturall and Morall Historic of the 


Chap. i. — That the Fride and Malice of the Dlvcll hatk 
heene the cause of Idolatrie. 

Lib. v. The Pride and Presumption of tlie Divell is so great and 
obstinate that alwaies hee seekes and strives to be honoured 
as God^ and doth arrogate to himsolfe all hee can^ what- 
soever doth appertaine to the most high God^ hee ceaseth 
not to abuse the blinde Nations of the world vpon whom 
the cleere light of the holy Gospel hath not yet shone. 

lob xii. Wee read in lob of this prowd tyrant, who settes his eyes 
aloft, and amongst all the sons of pride, he is the King. 
The holy Scripture instructes vs plainely of his vile inten- 
tions, and his overweening treason, whereby he hath pre- 
tended to make his Throne equall vnto Gods, saying in 

Isaiah XIV. Isaiah, "Thou diddest say within thy selfe, I will mount vp 
to heaven and set my chaire vpon all the starres of heaven, 
and I will sit vpon the toppe of the Firmament, and in the 
sides of the North, I will ascend above the height of the 
cloudes, and will be like to the most high." And in 

J^Jl^i Ezekiel, "Thy heart was lifted up, and thou hast said, I 

am God, and have set in the chaire of God in the midst of 
the sea.^^ Thus doth Satan continually persist in this 
wicked desire to make himselfe God. And although the 
iust and severe chastisement of the most high hath spoiled 
him of all his pompe and beautie, which made him grow 
prowd, being intreated as his fellonic and indiscretion had 



deserved^ as it is written by the same Propliets ; yet hath ^^^• 

he left nothing of his wickedness and perverse practises^ 
the which he hath made manifest by all meanea possible, 
like a mad dogge that bites the sword wherewith he is 
strucken. For as it is written, the pride of such as hate 
God doth alwaies increase. Hence comes the continuall 
and strange care which this enemie of God hath alwaies 
had to make him to be worshipt of men, inventing so many 
kinds of Idolatries, whereby he hath so long held the gretest 
part of the world in subiection, so as there scarce remaines 
any one corner for God and his people of Israel. And since Mart. xii. 
the power of the Gospel hath vanquished and disarmed 
him^ and that by the force of the Crosse, hee hath broken 
and ruined the most important and puissant places of his 
kingdome with the like tyrannic, hee hath begunne to 
assaile the barbarous people and nations farthest off, striving 
to maintaine amongst them his false and lying divinitie, 
the which the Sonne of God had taken from him in his 
Church, tying him with chaines as in a cage or prison, like 
a furious beast, to his great confusion, and reioycing of the 
servants of God, as he doth signify in lob. 

But in the end, although idolatrie had beene rooted out 
of the best and most notable partes of the worlde, yet he 
hath retired himself into the most remote parts, and hath 
ruled in that other part of the worlde which, although it be 
much inferiour in nobilitie, yet is it not of less compasse. 
There are two causes and chiefe motives for the which the 
divell hath so much laboured to plant idolatry and all in- 
fidelity, so as you shall hardly finde any Nation where there 
is not some markes thereof. The one is this great pre- 
sumption and pride, which is such, that whoso would con- 
sider how hee durst affront the very Sonne of God, and 
true God, in saying impudently, that he should fall downe 
and worship him ; the which he did, although he knew not 
certainely that this was the very God, yet had he some Mat. iv. 


Lib. v. 

opinion that it was the Sonne of God. A most cruell and 
horrible pride to dare thus impudently affront his God. 
Truely wee shall not finde it very strange that hee makes 
himselfe to be worshipped as God by ignorant Nations, 
seeing hee would seeke to be worshipped by God himselfe, 
calling himselfe God, being an abhominable and detestable 
creature. The other cause and motive of idolatrie is the 
mortall hatred he hath conceived for ever against man- 
kinde. For as our Saviour saith, hee hath beene a mur- 
therer from the beginning, and holdes it as a condition and 
inseparable qualitie of his wickednesse. And for that hee 
knowes the greatest misery of man is to worship the crea- 
ture for God ; for this reason hee never leaves to invent all 
sortes of Idolatries to destroy man and make him ennemy 
to God. There are two mischiefes which the divell causeth 
in idolatry : the one, that hee denies his God, according to 
Deut.xxxii. the text, "Thou hast left thy God who created thee^^; the 
other is, that hee doth subiect himselfe to a thing baser 
than himselfe ; for that all creatures are inferior to the rea- 
sonable, and the divell, although hee be superior to man in 
nature, yet in estate he is much inferior, seeing that man 
in this life is capable of Divinitie and Eternitie. By this 
meanes God is dishonoured, and man lost in all parts by 
idolatry, wherewith the divell in his pride is well content. 

Chap. ii. — Of many Mndes of idolatry the Indians 

have used. 

Sap. xiv. Idolatry, saieth the Holy-Ghost by the Wise man, is the 

cause, beginning, and end of all miseries ; for this cause the 
enemy of mankinde hath multiplied so many sortes and 
diversities of idolatry, as it were an infinite matter to spe- 
cific them all. Yet we may reduce idolatry to two heades, 
the one grounded vppon naturall things, the other vpon 


things imagined and made by mans invention. The first 
is divided into two ; for eyther the thing they worship is 
generally as the Sunne^ Moone, Fire^ Earthy and Elements, 
or else it is particular, as some certayne river, fountaine, 
tree, or forrest, when these things are not generaly wor- 
shipped in their kindes, but onely in particular. In this 
first kind of idolatry they have exceeded in Peru, and they 
properly call it Huaca. The second kinde of idolatry, which 
depends on mans inventions and fictions, may likewise be 
divided into two sortes, one which regards onely the pure arte 
and invention of man, as to adore the images or statues of 
gold, wood, or stone, of Mercury or Pallas, which neyther 
are, nor ever were any thing else but the bare pictures ; 
and the other that concernes that which really hath beene, 
and is in trueth the same thing, but not such as idolatry 
faines, as the dead, or some things proper vnto them, 
which men worshippe through vanitie and flatterie, so as 
we reduce all to foure kindes of idolatry, which the infi- 
dells vse ; of all which it behooveth us to speake some- 

Lib. v. 

Chap. hi. — That the Indians have some Jcnoivledge of God, 

First, although the darknesse of infidelitie holdeth these 
Nations in blindenesse, yet in many thinges the light of 
truth and reason works somewhat in them. And they com- 
monly acknowledge a supreame Lord and Author of all 
things, which they of Peru called Yiracocha,^ and gave him 
names of great excellence, as Pachacamac, or Pachayacha- 
chic,^ which is the Creator of heaven and earth : and Ysapu,^ 

' See G. de la Vega (ii, p. 66) for the meaning of the word Viracocha^ 
properly, Uira-ccocha. 

^ PachacamaCy Creator of the World. PacJiayacTiacJiic, Teacher of 
the World. . ^ Sapay^ Only. 


Lib. V. which is admirable, and otlier like names. Him they did 
worship^ as the chiefest of all, whom they did honour in be- 
holding the heaven. The like wee see amongst them of 
Mexico and China, and all other infidelles. Which accord- 
eth well with that which is saide of Saint Paul, in the Acts 
of the Apostles, where hee did see the Inscription of an 
Altare, Ignoto Deo — To the vnknown God. Wherevpon 
the Apostle tooke occasion to preach unto them, saying. 
Acts xvii, " He whome you worship without knowing, him doe I preach 
vnto you^'. In like sort, those which at this day do preach 
the Gospel to the Indians find no great difficultie to perswade 
them that there is a high God and Lord over all, and that 
this is the Christians God and the true God. And yet it 
hath caused great admiration in me, that although they had 
this knowledge, yet had they no proper name for God. 
If wee shall seeke into the Indian tongue for a word to 
answer to this name of God, as in Latin, JDenSj in Greeke, 
Theos, in Hebrew, El, in Arabike, Alia; but wee shall not 
finde any in the Cuscan or Mexicaine tongues. So as such 
as preach or write to the Indians vse our Spanish namo 
DioSj fitting it to the accent or pronunciation of the Indian 
tongues, the which differ much, whereby appeares the small 
knowledge they had of God, seeing they cannot so much as 
name him, if it be not by our very name : yet in trueth they 
had some little knowledge, and therefore in Peru they made 
him a rich temple, which they called Pachacamac, which was 
the principall Sanctuarie of the realme. And as it hath 
been saide, this word of Pachacamac is, as much to say, as 
the Creator, yet in this temple they vsed their idolatries, 
worshipping the divell and figures. They likewise made 
sacrifices and offrings to Viracocha, which held the chiefe 
place amongst the worships which the Kings Yncas made. 
Heereof they called the Spaniards Virocochas, for that they 
holde opinion they are the sonnes of heaven, and divine ; 
oven as others did attribute a deitie to Paul and Barnabas, 


calling the one lupiter^ and the other Mercurie^ so woulde ^° '^' 

they offer sacrifices vnto them, as vnto gods : and as the 
Barbarians of Melita (which is Malta), seeing that the viper Actsxviii. 
did not hurt the Apostle, they called him Grod. 

As it is therefore a trueth, conformable to reason^ 
that there is a soveraigne Lorde and King of heaven, 
whome the Gentiles, with all their infidelities and ido- 
latries, have not denyed, as wee see in the Philosophy 
of Timseus in Plato, in the Metaphisickes of Aristotle, and Arist^c"^"^' 
in the Asclepio of Tresmigister, as also in the Poesies of metaph. 
Homer and Virgil. Therefore the Preachers of the Gospel in Piman- ' 
have no great difficultie to plant and perswade this truth Asciepio. 
of a supreame God, be the Nations of whome they 
preach never so barbarous and brutish. But it is hard 
to roote out of their mindes that there is no other God, 
nor any other deitie then one ; and that all other things 
of themselves have no power, being not workeing proper 
to themselves, but what the great and onely God and Lord 
doth give and impart vnto them. To conclude, it is neces- 
sarie to perswade them by all meanes in reproving their 
errors, as well in that wherein they generally fail in wor- 
shipping more then one God, as in particular (which is 
much more), to hold for Gods, and to demand favour and 
helpe of those things which are not Gods, nor have any 
power, but what the true God their Lord and Creator hath 
given them. 

Chap. iv. — Of the first Jdnde of Idolatries vjpon naturall and 

iiniversall things. 

Next to Viracocha, or their supreme God, that which 
most commonly they have and do adore amongst the Infi- 
dells is the Sunne ) and, after, those things which are most 
remarkable in the celestiall or elementarie nature, as the 


Lib. V. moonc, starres, sea^ and land. The Huacas^ or Oratories, 
which the Yncas Lords of Peru had in greatest reverence 
next to Viracocha and the sunne, was the thunder, which 
they called by three divers names, Chuquilla, Catuilla, and 
Intiillapa/ supposing it to bee a man in heaven, with a sling 
and a mace, and that it is in his power to cause raine, haile, 
thunder, and all the rest that appertaines to the region of 
the aire, where the cloudes engender. It was a Huaca 
(for so they called the Oratories) generall to all the 
Indians of Peru, offering vnto him many sacrifices ; and in 
Cuzco, which is the Court and Metropolitane Cittie, they 
did sacrifice children vnto him, as to the Sunne. They did 
worship these three, Viracocha, the Sunne, and Thunder, 
after another manor than all the rest, as Polo^ writes, who 
had made triall thereof, they did put as it were a gauntlet 
or glove vpon their hands when they did lift them vp to 
worshippe them. They did worshippe the earth, which 
they called Pachamama, as the Ancients did the goddesse 
Tellus ; and the sea likewise, which they call Mamacocha, 
as the Ancients worshipped Thetis or Neptune. More- 
over, they did worship the rainebow, which were the armes 
and blazons of the Ynca, with two snakes stretched out 
on either side. Amongst the starres they all did com- 
monly worship that which they called Colca, and we heere 
the little goats.^ They did attribute divers offices to divers 
starres, and those which had neede of their favour did 
worship them, as the shepheard did sacrifice to a star 
which they called vrcuchillay, which they holde to be a 
sheepe of divers colours, having the care to preserve their 
cattell. It is understood to be that which the Astronomers 
call Lyra. These shepheards worshippe two other starres, 
which walke neere vnto them, they call them Catuchillay 

Yllapa is thunder in Quichua. Chuqid-ylla was the name of the 
God of Thunder. Ynti-yllapa^ the Sun's thunder. 

2 Polo dc Ondegardo. ^ The Plaiades. 


and vrcuchillay j and thej faine them to be an ewe and a 
lambe. Others worshipped a starre which they called 
Machachuay^ to which they attribute the charge and power 
over serpents and snakes, to keepe them from hurting 
of them. They ascribe power to another starre, which 
they called Chuquinchincay (which is as much as jaguar), 
over tigres, beares, and lyons, and they have generally be- 
leeved, that of all the beasts of the earth, there is one alone 
in heaven like vnto them, the which hath care of their pro- 
creation and increase. And so they did observe and wor- 
ship divers starres, as those which they called Chacana, 
Topatorca, Mamana, Mirco, Miquiquiray, and many others. 
So, as it seemed, they approached somewhat neere the pro- 
positions of Platoes Ideas. The Mexicaines almost in the 
same manor, after the supreame Grod, worshiped the Sunne. 
And therefore they called Hernando Cortez, as he hath 
written in a letter sent vnto the Emperour Charles the fift, 
Sonne of the Sunne, for his care and courage to compasse 
the earth. But they made their greatest adoration to an 
Idol called Yitzilipuztli, the which in all this region they 
called the most puissant, and Lord of all things ; for this 
cause the Mexicaines built him a Temple, the greatest, the 
fairest, the highest, and the most sumptuous of all other. 
The scituation and beautie thereof may wel be coniectured 
by the mines which yet remaine in the midst of the Cittie 
of Mexico. But heere the Mexicaines Idolatrie hath bin 
more pernicious and hurtfull then that of the Yncas, as wee 
shall see plainer heereafter, for that the greatest part of 
their adoration and idolatrie was employed to Idols, and not 
to naturall things, although they did attribute naturall 
effects to these Idolls, as raine, multiplication of cattell, 
warre, and generation, even as the Greeks and Latins have 
forged Idolls of Phoebus, Mercuric, lupiter, Minerva, and of 
Mars. To conclude, whoso shall neerely looke into it, shall 
finde this manner which the Divell hath vsed to deceive the 


Lib. v. 


Lib. t. Indians^, to be the same wherewith hee hath deceived the 
Greekes and Romans, and other ancient Gentiles, giving 
them to vnderstand that these notable creatures, the Sunne 
Moone, Starres, and Elements_, had power and authoritie to 
doe good or harme to men. And although God hath created 
all these things for the vse of man, yet hath man so much 
forgotte himselfe as to rise vp against him. Moreover^ he 
hath imbased himselfe to creatures that are inferiour vnto 
himselfe^ worshiping and calling vpon their workes, for- 
saking his Creator. As the Wise man saieth well in these 

Sap. xiii. wordos^ *^A11 men are vaine and abused that have not the 
knowledge of God, seeing they could not know him, that is, 
by the things that seemed good vnto them : and although 
they have beheld his workes, yet have they not attained to 
know the author and maker thereof, but they have beleeved 
that the fire, winde, swift aire, the course of the starres, 
great rivers, with Sunne and Moone, were Gods and 
governours of the world; and being in love with the beautie 
of these things, they thought they should esteeme them as 
Gods.^^ It is reason they should consider how much more 
faire the Creator is, seeing that he is the Author of beauties 
and makes all things. Moreover, if they admire the power 
and effects of these things, thereby they may vnderstand 
how much more mightie hee is that gave them their being, 
for by the beautie and greatnes of the creatures, they may 
iudge what the Maker is. Hitherto are the wordes of the 
Booke of Wisdome, from whence we may draw a good and 
strong argument, to overthrow the Idolatrie of Infidells, 
who seeke rather to serve the creature then the Creator, as 

Rom. i. ^^^ Apostle doth iustly reprehend them. But for as much 
as this is not of our present subiect, and that it hath been 
sufficiently treated of in the Sermons written against the 
errors of the Indians, it shall bee sufficient now to shew 
that they did worship the great God, and their vaine and 
lying gods all of one fashion ; for their manor to pray to 


Yiracoclia, to the Sunne, the Starres, and the rest of their ^" 

Idolls, was to open their hands, and to make a certaine 
sound with their mouthes, hke people that kissed, and to 
aske that which every one desired in offering his sacrifices, 
yet was there great difference betwixt the words they vsed 
in speaking to the great Ticciviracocha/ to whom they did 
attribute the cheefe power and commandement over all 
things, and those they vsed to others, the which every one 
did worship privately in his house, as Gods or particular 
Lords, saying that they were their intercessors to this great 
Ticciviracocha. This maner of worship, opening the hands, 
and as it were kissing, hath something like to that which 
lob had in horror, as fit for Idolaters, saying, ^' If I have lob xxxii. 
kissed my hands with my mouth, beholding the Sunne 
when it shines, or the Moone when it is light, the which is 
a great iniquitie, and to deny the most great God/^ 

Chap. v. — Oftlie Idolatry the Indians vsed to ][> articular 


The Divell hath not bene contented to make these blinde 
Indians to worshippe the Sunne, Moone, Starres, Earth 
and Sea, and many other generall things in nature, but hee 
hath passed on further, giving them for God, and making 
them subiect to base and abiect things, and for the most 
part, filthy and infamous. No man needes to woonder at 
this barbarous blindnes, if hee remember what the Apostle '^^^- ^^ 
speaketh of Wise men and Philosophers. That having 
knowne God, they did not glorifie him, nor give him thankes 
as to their God, but they were lost in their own imagina- 
tions and conceipts, and their hearts were hardened in their 
follies, and they have changed the glory and deity of the 

1 " Aticsi-Uiracocha", according to Molina. From "Atic", a con- 

X 2 

Lib. t. 


eternall God into shews and figures of vaine and corruptible 
things, as men_, birds, beasts, and serpents ; we know well 
that the Egyptians did worship the Dogge of Osiris, the 
Cow of Isis, and the Sheepe of Amnion ; the Romans did 
worship the goddesse Februa, of Feavers, and the Tarpeien 
Goose ; and Athenes the wise woman, the Cocke, and the 
Raven, and such other like vanities and mockeries, whereof 
the auntient Histories of the Gentiles are full. Men fell 
into this great misery, for that they would not subiect 
themselves to the Lawe of the true God and Creator, as 
Saint Athanasius dooth learnedly handle, writing against 
Idolatry. But it is wonderfull strange to see the excesse 
which hath beene at the Indies, especially in Peru ; for they 
worshipped rivers, fountaines, the mouthes of rivers, 
entries of mountaines, rockes or great stones, hilles and the 
tops of mountains, which they call Apachitas, and they 
hold them for matters of great devotion. To conclude, 
they did worship all things in nature which seemed to 
them remarkable and difierent from the rest, as acknow- 
ledging some particular deitie. 

They shewed me in Caxamalca of Nasca a little hill or 
great mount of sand, which was the chiefe Idoll or Huaca of 
the Antients. I demaunded of them what divinitie they 
found in it ? They answered, that they did worship it for 
the woonder, being a very high mount of sand, in the midst 
of very thicke mountains of stone. Wee had neede in the 
cittie of Kings of great store of great wood for the 
melting of a Bell, and therefore they cut downe a great 
deformed tree, which for the greatnesse and antiquitie 
thereof had beene a long time the Oratorio and Huaca of 
the Indians. And they beleeved there was a certaine 
Divinity in any thing that was extraordinary and strange in 
his kinde, attributing the like vnto small stones and 
mettalls ; yea, vnto rootes and fruites of the earth, as the 
rootes they call Papas. There is a strange kinde which they 


call LlallahuaSj which they kissed and worshipped. They ^^^- ^' 
did likewise worshippe Beares, Lions, Ty^res, and Snakes, 
to the end they should not hurt them ; and such as their 
gods bee, such are the things they offer vnto them in their 
worshippe. They have vsed as they goe by the way, to 
cast, in the crosse wayes, on the hilles, and toppes of 
mountaines, which they call Apachitas/ olde shooes, 
feathers, and coca chewed, being an hearb they vse much. 
And when they have nothing left, they cast a stone as an 
offring, that they might passe freely, and have greater 
force, the which they say increaseth by this meanes, as it is 
reported in a provinciall Council of Peru. And therefore ??^°^^- . .. 

^ ^ Limensi., ii, 

they finde in the hie wayes great heapes of stones offered, p- ^' ^^p- ^^• 
and such other things. The like follie did the Antients vse, 
of whome it is spoke in the Proverbs. ^' Like vnto him that Prou. xxvi. 
offereth stones vnto the hill of Mercuric, such a one is hee 
that honoureth fooles,"^ meaning that a man shall reape no 
more fruit nor profit of the second than the fi.rst, for that 
their God Mercury, made of stone, dooth not acknow- 
ledge any offering, neyther doth a foole any honour that is 
doone him. They vsed another offring no lesse absurd, 
pulling the haire from the eyebrowes to offer it to the 
Sunne, hills, Apachitas, to the winds, or to any other thing 
they feare. Such is the miseries that many Indians have 
lived in, and do to this day, whom the divell doth abuse, 
like very babes, with any foolish illusion whatsoever. So 
dooth Saint Chrysostome in one of his Homilies compare 
them, but the servants of God, which labour to draw them 
to salvation, ought not contemne these follies and child- 
ishnesse, being sufficient to plunge these poore abused 
creatures into eternall perdition; but they ought with good 
and cleere reasons to draw them from so great ignorance. 

' Correctly " Apachecta". See G. de la Vega^ i, p. 117- 
2 " As he that biudeth a stone in a sling, so is he that giveth honour 
to a fool." — Proverbs xxvi, v. 8. 

Lib. v. 


For in trueth it is a matter woortliy of consideration^ to see 
how they subiect themselves to such as instruct them in the 
true way of life. There is nothing among all the creatures 
more beautifull than the Sunne. which all the Gentiles did 
commonly worship. A discreete captaine and good chris- 
tian told me that he had with a good reason perswaded the 
Indians that the Sunne was no god. He required the 
Cacique or chiefe Lord to give him an Indian that were 
light, to carry him a letter ; which doone_, he saide to the 
Cacique, Tell me who is Lord and chiefe, either this Indian 
that carries the letter, or thou that dost send him ? The 
Cacique answered, without doubt I am, for he dooth but 
what I commaund him. Even so replied the Captaine, is it 
of the Sunne we see, and the Creator of all things. For 
that the Sunne is but a servant to the most high Lorde, 
which, by his commaundement, runnes swiftly, giving light 
to all nations. Thus thou seest it is against reason to yeeld 
that honour to the Sunne w^hich is due to the Creator and 
Lord of all. The Captaine's reason pleased them all ; and 
the Cacique with his Indians sayde it was trueth, and they 
were much pleased to vnderstand it. 

They report of one of the Kings Yncas, a man of a 
subtill spirite, who, seeing that all his predecessors had 
worshipped the Sunne, said that hee did not take the Sunne 
to be God, neither could it be, for that God was a great 
Lord, who with great quiet and leasure performeth his 
workes, and that the Sunne doth never cease his course, 
saying that the thing which laboured so much could not 
seeme to be God.-^ Wherein hee spake truth. Even so, 
when they shew the Indians their blind errors by lively and 
plaine reasons, they are presently perswaded and yeelde 
admirably to the trueth. 

^ This was Huayna Ccapac. See G. de la Vega^ ii, p. 446. 


Chap. vi. — Of another Idnde of idolatry vpon the dead. 

There is an other kinde of idolatry^ very different from ^^^- ^• 
the rest, which the Gentiles have vsed for the deads sake 
whom they loved and esteemed ; and it seemeth that the 
Wise man would give vs to vnderstand, that the beginning 
of idolatry proceeded thence, saying thus : ^' The seeking of J^^^o '21^^' 
Idolles was the beginning of fornication, and the bringing 
vp of them is the destruction of life. For they were not from 
the beginning, neither shall they continue for ever, but the 
vanitie and idlenesse of men hath found out this invention, 
therefore shall they shortly come to an end ; for when a 
father mourned heavily for the death of his miserable sonne, 
he made for his consolation an Image of the dead man, and 
beganne to worshippe him as a god, who a little before had 
ended his daies like a mortall man^ commanding his servants 
to make ceremonies and sacrifices in remembrance of him. 
Thus in processe of time this vngratious custome waxing 
strong was held for a lawe, and Images were worshipped 
by the commaundement of Kings and Tirantes. Then they 
beganne to doe the like to them that were absent, and such 
as they could not honour in presence, being farre off, they 
did worship in this sort, causing the Images of Kings to be 
brought whom they would worship, supplying, by this 
invention, their absence whom they desired to flatter. The 
curiositie of excellent workmen increased this Idolatrie, for 
these Images were made so excellent by their Art, that the 
ignorant were provoked to worshippe them, so as by the 
perfection of their Arte, pretending to content them that 
gave them to make, they drew Pictures and Images farre 
more excellent ; and the common people, ledde with the 
shew and grace of the worke, did holde and esteeme him 
for a God, whome before they had honoured as a man. And 
this was the miserable errour of men, who sometimes 


Li«. V. yeeldiog to tlieir affection and serice, sometimes to the 
flatterie of their Kings, did attribute vnto stones the incom- 
municable name of God, worshipping them for Gods/^ 

All this is in the booke of Wisdome, woorthy to be noted; 
and such as are curious in the search of Antiquities shall 
finde that the beginning of idolatry were these Images of 
the dead. I say idolatry, which is properly the worship of 
Idolles and Images; for that it is not certaine that this 
other idolatry, to worship the creatures, as the Sunne and 
and the hostes of heaven, or the number of Planets and 

ler. xix. Starres, whereof mention is made in the Prophets, hath 
beene after the idolatry of Images, although without doubt 

Sophon. i. they have made idols in honour of the Sunne, the Moone, 
and the Earth. Peturning to our Indians ; thej came to the 
height of Idolatry by the same meanes the Scripture 
maketh mention of: first they had a care to keepe the 
bodies of their Kings and Noblemen whole, from any ill 
scent or corruption above two hundred yeares. In this 
sorte were their Kings Yncas in Cusco^ every one in his 
Chappell and Oratorio, so as the Marquis of Canete being 
Viceroy, to root out Idolatry, caused three or foure of their 
gods to be drawne out and carried to the city of Kings, 
which bredde a great admiration, to see these bodies (dead 
so many yeares before) remaine so faire and also whole.-*- 
Every one of these Kings Yncas left all his treasure and 
revenues to entertaine the place of worshippe where his 
body was layed, and there were many Ministers with all his 
familie dedicated to his service ; for no King successor did 
vsurpe the treasures and plate of his predecessor, but he 
did gather all new for himselfe, and his pallace. They 
were not content with this Idolatry to dead bodies, but also 
they made their figures and representations ; and every 
King in his life time caused a figure to be made wherein he 
was represented, w^hich they called Huauque, which signifieth 
1 See G. de la Vega^ ii, p. 91. 


brotlier^ for that they should doe to this Image, during his 
life and death_, as much honor and reverence as to himself. 
They carryed this Image to the warres, and in procession for 
rain or fayre weather, making sundry feastes and sacrifices 
vnto them. There have beene many of these Idolles in Cusco, 
and in that territorie, but nowe they say that this supersti- 
tion of worshipping of stones hath altogether ceased, or for 
the most part, after they had beene discovered by the 
diligence of the Licentiate Polo, and the first was that of 
the Ynca Rocca, chief of the faction or race of Hanan 
Cusco. And we find that among other Nations they had in 
great estimation and reverence the bodies of their prede- 
cessors, and did likewise worship their Images. 

Lib. v. 

Chap. vii. — Of Swperstitions they vsed to the Dead. 

The Indians of Peru beleeved commonly that the Soules 
lived after this life, and that the good were in glorie and 
the bad in paine ; so as there is little difficultie to perswade 
them to these articles. But they are not yet come to the 
knowledge of that point, that the bodies should rise with 
the soules. And therefore they did vse a wonderfull care, 
as it is saide, to preserve the bodies which they honoured 
after death j to this end their successors gave them gar- 
ments, and made sacrifices vnto them, especially the Kings 
Yncas, being accompanied at their funeralls with a great 
number of servants and women for his service in the other 
life ; and therefore on the day of his decease they did put 
to death the woman he had loved best, his servants and 
oflficers, that they might serve him in the other life. 

Whenas Huayna Ccapac died (who was father to Atahu- 
alpa, at what time the Spaniards entred), they put to death 
aboue a thousand persons of all ages and conditions, for his 
service, to accompany him in the other life ; after many 


Lib. v. songs and drunkennes they slew them ; and these that 
were appointed to death, held themselves happy. They did 
sacrifice many things vnto them, especially yong children, 
and with the bloud they made a stroake on the dead mans 
face, from one eare to the other. This superstition and 
inhumanitie, to kill both men and women, to accompanie 
and serve the dead in the other life, hath beene followed by 
others, and is at this day vsed amongst some other barbarous 
Nations. And as Polo writes, it hath beene in a maner 
generall throughout all the Indies. The venerable Bede 
reportes, that before the Englishmen were converted to the 
Gospel they had the same custome, to kill men to accom- 
pany and serve the dead. It is written of a Portugall, who, 
being captive among the Barbarians, had beene hurt with 
a dart, so as he lost one eye, and as they would have 
sacrificed him to accompany a Nobleman that was dead, hee 
said vnto them that those that were in the other life would 
make small account of the dead if they gave him a blind 
man for a compauion, and that it were better to give him an 
attendant that had both his eyes. This reason being found 
good by the Barbarians they let him go. Besides this super- 
stition of sacrificing men to the dead, beeing used but to 
great Personages, there is another far more general and 
common in all the Indies, which is to set meate and drinke 
vpon the grave of the dead, imagining they did feede thereon : 
the which hath likewise beene an error amongst the Ancients, 
as saint Augastine writes, and therefore they gave them 
meate and drinke. At this day many Indian Infidells doe 
secretly draw their dead out of the churchyard and burie 
them on hilles, or vpon passages of mountains, or else in 
their owne houses. They have also vsed to put gold and 
silver in their mouth, hands, and bosome, and to apparell 
them with new garments, durable and well lined, vnder 
the herse. 

They beleeve that the soules of the dead wandred vp and 


downe and indure colde, tliirst_, liunger_, and travell, and for ^^^- ■^• 
this cause they make their anniversaries, carrying them 
clothes, meatO; and drinke. So as the Prelates, in their 
Synodes, above all things, give charge to their Priests to let 
the Indians vnderstand, that the offerings that are set vpon 
the sepulchre is not to feede the dead but for the poor and 
ministers, and that God alone dooth feede the soules in the 
other life, seeing they neither eate nor drinke any corporall 
thing, being very needefull they should vnderstand it, lest 
they should convert this religious vse into a superstition of 
the gentiles as many doe. 

Chap. viii. — Of the ^manner of burying the dead among 
the Mexicaine and sundrie other Nations, 

Having reported what many nations of Peru have done 
with their dead, it shall not be from the purpose to make 
particular mention of the Mexicaines in this poynt, whose 
mortuaries were much solemnified and full of notable follies. 
It was the office of the priests and religious of Mexico (who 
lived there with a strange observance, as shall be said here- 
after) to interre the dead and doe their obsequies. The 
places where they buried them was in their gardens, and in 
the courts of their owne houses ; others carried them to the 
places of sacrifices which were doone in the mountaines ; 
others burnt them, and after buryed the ashes in theyr 
Temples, and they buryed them all with whatsoever they 
had of apparel, stones, and Jewells. They did put the ashes 
of such as were burnt into pots, and with them the Jewells, 
stones, and earerings of the dead, how rich and pretious 
soever. They did sing the funerall offices like to answeres, 
and did often lift vp the dead bodies, dooing many cere- 
monies. At these mortuaries they did eate and drinke, and 
if it were a person of qualitie they gave apparrell to all such 

Lib. v. 


as came to the interrement. When any one dyed they layd 
him open in a chamber, vntill that all his kinsfolkes and 
friendes were come, who brought presents vnto the dead, 
and saluted him as if he were living. And if he were a King 
or a Lord of some towne, they offered him slaves to be put 
to death with him, to the end they might serve him in the 
other world. They likewise put to death his priest or chap- 
laine (for every Noble man had a priest which administred 
these ceremonies within his house), and then they killed him 
that hee might execute his office with the dead. They like- 
wise killed his cooke, his butler, his dwarfes and deformed 
men, by whom he was most served ; neyther did they spare 
the very brothers of the dead, who had most served them : 
for it was a greatnesse amongest the Noble men to be served 
by theyr brethren and the rest. Finally they put to death 
all of his traine for the entertaining of his house in the other 
world ; and lest poverty should oppresse them they buried 
with them much wealth, as golde, silver, stones, curtins of 
exquisite worke, bracelets of gold, and other rich peeces. 
And if they burned the dead, they vsed the like with all his 
servants and ornaments they gave him for the other world. 
Then tooke they all the ashes they buryed with very great 
solemnity. The obsequies continued tenne dayes, with songs 
of plaints, and lamentations, and the priests carried away 
the dead with so many ceremonies, and in so great number 
as they coulde scarce accoumpt them. To the Captaines and 
Noblemen they gave trophees and marks of honour accord- 
ing to their enterprises and valor imployed in the warres 
and governements ; for this effect they had armes and par- 
ticular blasons. They carried these markes or blasons to 
the place where he desired to be buried or burnt, marching 
before the body, and accompanying it, as it were, in pro- 
cession, where the priests and officers of the Temple went 
with diverse furnitures and ornaments, some casting 
incense, others singing, and some sounding of mournefuU 


flutes and drummes, whicli did mucli increase the sorrow of 
his kinsfolkes and subjects. The priest who did the office 
was decked with the markes of the idoll which the noble 
man had represented, for all noble men did represent idolles, 
and carried the name of some one, and for this occasion they 
were esteemed and honoured. The order of knighthoode 
did commonly carry these forsaide markes. He that should 
be burnt, being brought to the place appoynted, they invi- 
roned him with wood of pine trees and all his baggage, then 
set they fire vnto it, increasing it still with goomie wood, 
vntil] that all were converted into ashes, then came there 
foorth a Priest attired like a Divell, having mouthes vpon 
every ioynt of him, and many eyes of glasse, holding a great 
staffe with the which hee did mingle all the ashes very 
boldly and with so terrible a gesture, as he terrified all the 
assistants. Sometimes the minister had other difi'erent 
habites according to the qualitie of the dead. I have 
made this digression of obsequies and funeralls vpon the 
idolatry and superstition they had to the dead. It is reason 
to returne now to our chiefe subject and to finish this 

Lib. y. 

Chap. ix. — The fourth and last Jcinde of Idolatry the Indians 
vsed, especially the Mexicaines, to Images and Idolls. 

Although in trueth God is greatly ofiended with these 
above named Idolatries, where they woorship the creatures; 
yet the holy Ghost doth much more reproove and condemne 
another kind of idolatry, and that is of those that worship 
Images and figures made by the hand of men, which have 
nothing else in them but to be of wood, stone, or mettall, 
and of such forme as God hath given them. And therefore 
the Wiseman speaketh thus of such people, ^' They are 
miserable, whose hopes may be counted among the dead. 


^^°- ^- that have called the workes of mens handes gods^ as golde, 
silver, and the invention of the likenes of beastes, or a 
fruitlesse stone, which hatli nothing more in it than antiqui- 
ties^ And hee dooth divinely follow this proposition against 
this errour and follie of the Gentiles ; as also the Prophets 
isa. xiiv. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Baruc, and King David, doe treate thereof 
pJaJ^^ckm ^^''PV- -^^ ^^ convenient and necessary that the ministers 
of Christ which doe reproove the errors of idolatry, should 
have a good sight, and consider well these reasons which, 
the holy-Ghost doth so lively set downe, being all reduced 
Hosea viii. into a short sentence by the Prophet Hosea, '^ He that hath 
made them was a workeman, and therefore can they be no 
gods, therefore the Calfe of Samaria shalbe like the Spiders 
webbe/' Returning to our purpose, there hath beene 
great curiositie at the Indies in making of idoUes and 
pictures of diverse formes and matters, which they wor- 
shipped for gods, and in Peru they called them Huacas, 
being commonly of fowle and deformed beasts ; at the least, 
such as I have scene, were so. I beleeve verily that the 
Divel, in whose honour they made these idolles, was pleased 
to cause himselfe to be worshipped in these deformities, and 
in trueth it was found so, that the Divell spake and answered 
in many of these Huacas or idolls, and his priests and 
ministers came to those Oracles of the father of lies, and 
such as he is, sucli were his counsells and prophesies. In the 
provinces of New Spaine, Mexico, Tescuco, Tlascalla, Cholula, 
and in the neighbour countries to this realme, this kinde of 
idolatry hath beene more practised than in any other realme 
of the world. And it is a prodigious thing to heare the 
superstitions rehersed that they have vsed in that poynt, of 
the which it shall not be vnpleasant to speake something. 
The chiefest idoll of Mexico was, as I have sayde, Yitzilipuztli. 
It was an image of wood, like to a man, set vpon a stoole 
of the colour of azure, in a brankard or litter ; at every 
corner was a piece of wood in forme of a Serpant^s head. 


The Steele signified that he was set in heaven : this idoll ^^°; ^; 
hadde all the forehead azure^ and had a band of azure vnder 
the nose from one eare to another : vpen his head he had 
a rich plume of feathers, like to the beake of a small bird, 
the which was covered on the toppe with gold burnished 
very browne •* hee had in his left hand a white target^ with 
the figures of five pine apples made of white feathers, set in 
a crosse : and from above issued forth a crest of gold, and 
at his sides hee hadde foure dartes, which (the Mexicaines 
say) had beene sent from heaven to do those actes and pro- 
wesses which shall be spoken of. In his right hand he had 
an azured stafi"e, cutte in fashion of a waving snake. All 
these ornaments, with the rest, had their meaning, as the 
Mexicaines doe shew : the name of Vitziliputzli signifies 
the left hand of a shining feather.^ 

I will speake heereafter of the prowde Temple, the sacri- 
fices, feasts, and ceremonies of this great idoll, being very 
notable things. But at this present we will only shew that 
this idoll, thus richly appareled and deckt, was set vpen an 
high Altare in a small peece or boxe, well covered with 
linnen clothes, iewells, feathers, and ornaments of golde, 
with many rundles of feathers, the fairest and most exqui- 
site that could be found : hee had alwaies a curtine before 
him for the greater veneration. loyning to the chamber or 
chappell of this idoll, there was a peece of lesse worke, and 
not so well beautified, where there was another idoll they 
called Tlaloc. These two idolls were alwaies together, for that 
they held them as companions, and of equall power. There 
was another idoll in Mexico, much esteemed, which was the 
god of repentance, and of jubilies and pardons for their 
sinnes. They called this idoll Tezcatlipuca ; he was made 
of a blacke shining stone like to layel,^ being attired with 
some ornamental devises after their manner ; it had earerings 
of golde and silver, and through the nether lippe a small 
' " Siniestra de pluma relumbrante." 2 "Azauache.'" 


■^^^- ^- tube of cristall, in length halfe a foote : in tlie which they 
sometimes put a greene feather, and sometimes an azured, 
which made it resemble sometimes an emerald, and some- 
times a turquois : it had the haire broided and bound vp 
with a haire-lace of golde burnished, at the end whereof did 
hang an eare of golde, with two firebrands of smoake painted 
therein, which did signifie the prayers of the afilicted and 
sinners that he heard, when they recommended themselves 
vnto him. Betwixt the two eares hanged a number of 
small herons. He had a iewell hanging at his necke, so 
great that it covered all his stomacke : vpon his armes 
bracelets of golde ; at his navill a rich greene stone ; and in 
his left hand a fanne of pretious feathers, of greene, azure, 
and yellow, which came forth of a looking glasse of golde, 
shining and well burnished, and that signified, that within 
this looking glasse hee sawe whatsoever was doone in 
the world. They called this mirror or plate of golde Itlac- 
heayaj which signifies his glasse for to looke in. In his 
right hand he held foure dartes, which signified the chas- 
tisement hee gave vnto the wicked for their sinnes. And 
therefore they feared this idoll most, lest he should discover 
their faults and offences. At his feast they had pardon of 
their sinnes, which was made every foure years, as shalbe 
declared heereafter. They held this idoll Tezcatlipuca for 
the god of drought, of famine, barrennesse, and pestilence : 
And therefore they paynted him in another forme, being set 
in great maiesty vppon a stoole compassed in with a red 
curtiuj painted and wrought with the heads and bones of 
dead men. In the left hand it had a target with five 
pines, like vnto pine apples of cotton : and in the right a 
little dart, with a threatening countenaunce, and the arme 
stretcht out, as if he would cast it ; and from the target 
came foure dartes. It had the countenance of an angry 
man, and in choler, the body all painted blacke, and the 
head full of Quales feathers. They vsed great superstition to 


this idoll, for the feare they had of it. In Cholula^ which is 
a commonwealth of Mexico_, they worshipt a famous idoll, 
which was the god of marchandise, being to this day greatly 
given to trafficke. They called it Quetzaalcoatl. 

This idoll was in a great place in a temple very high : it 
had about it golde, silver _, Jewells, very rich feathers_, and 
habites of divers colours. It had the forme of a man, but 
the visage of a little bird with a red bill^ and above a combe 
full of wartes, having rankes of teeth^ and the tongue hang- 
ing out. It carried vpon the head a pointed myter of 
painted paper, a sithe in the hand, and many toyes of golde 
on the legges ; with a thousand other foolish inventions, 
whereof all had theii^ significations ; and they worshiped it, 
for that he enriched whome hee pleased, as Memnon and 
Plutus. In trueth this name which the Cholulanos gave to 
their God was very fitte, although they vnderstoode it not: 
they called it Quetzaalcoatl, signifying colour of a rich feather, 
for such is the divell of covetousnesse. These barbarous 
people contented not themselves to have gods onely, but 
they had goddesses also, as the Fables of Poets have brought 
in, and the blind gentility of the Greekes and Romans 
worshipt them. The chiefe goddesse they worshipt was 
called Tozi, which is to say our grandmother, who, as the 
Histories of Mexico report, was daughter to the king of 
Culbuacan, who was the first they fleaed by the commaunde- 
ment of Yitzliputzli, whom they sacrificed in this sort, being 
his sister, and then they beganne to flea men in their sacri- 
fices, and to clothe the living with the skinnes of the 
sacrificed, having learned that their gods were pleased there- 
with, as also to pull the hearts out of them they sacrificed, 
which they learned of their god, who pulled out the hearts 
of such as he punished in Tulla, as shall be sayd in his place. 
One of these goddesses they worshipt had a sonne, who was a 
great hunter, whome they of Tlascalla afterwardes tooke for 
a god, and those were ennemies to the Mexicaines, by whose 


Lib. r. 

Lib. v. 


ayde the Spaniardes woiine Mexico. The province of 
Tlascalla is very fit for hunting, and the people are much 
given therevnto. They therfore made a great feast vnto 
this idoll, whom they painted of such a forme as it is not 
now needefull to loose any .time in the description thereof. 
The feast they made was pleasant^ and in this sort : They 
sounded a Trumpet at the breake of day, at the sotmd 
whereof they all assembled with their bowes, arrows, netts, 
and other instruments for hunting : then they went in pro- 
cession with theyr idol), being followed by a great number 
of people to a high mountayne, vpon the toppe whereof 
they had made a bower of leaves, and in the middest thereof 
an Altare richly deckt, where- vpon they placed the idoll. 
They marched vv^ith a great bruit of Trumpettes, Cornets, 
Flutes, and Drummes, and being come vnto the place they 
invironed this mountaine on all sides, putting fire to it on 
all partes : by meanes whereof manie beasts flew foorth, as 
stagges, Connies^ hares, foxes, and woolves, which went to 
the toppe flying fromi the fire. These hunters followed after 
with great cries and noyse of diverse instruments, hunting 
them to the top before the idoll, whither fled such a num- 
ber of beastes, in so great a prease, that they leaped one 
vpon another, vpon the people, and vppon the Altare, 
w^herein they tooke great delight. Then tooke they a great 
number of these beasts, and sacrificed them before the idoll, 
as stagges and other great beasts, pulling out their hearts, 
as they vse in the sacrifice of men, and with the like cere- 
mony : which done, they tooke all their prey vppon their 
shoulders, and retired with their idoll in the same manner 
as they came, and entered the citty laden with all these 
things, very ioyfull, with great store of musicke, trumpets, 
and drummes, vntill they came to the Temple, where they 
placed their idoll with great reverence and solemnitie. 
They presently went to prepare their venison, wherewith 
they made a banquet to all the people ; and after dinner 


they made their playes^ representations, and daunces before 
tlie idoll. They had a great number of other idolles, of 
gods and goddesses ; but the chiefe were of the Mexicaine 
Nation^ and the neighbour people as is saide. 

Lib. y. 

Chap. x. — Of a strange manjier of Idolatry practised amongst 

the Mexicaines. 

As we have saide that the kings Yncas of Peru caused 
Images to be made to their likenesse, which they called 
their Guacos or brothers/ causing them for to be honored 
like themselves : even so the Mexicains have done of their 
gods, which was in this sorte. They tooke a captive, such 
as they thought good ; and afore they did sacrifice him vnto 
their idolls, they gave him the name of the idoll, to whorae 
hee should be sacrificed, and apparelled him with the 
same ornaments like their idoll, saying, that he did repre- 
sent the same idoll. And during the time that this repre- 
sentation lasted, which was for a yeere in some feasts, in 
others sixe moneths, and in others lesse, they reverenced 
and worshipped him in the same manor as the proper idoll ; 
and in the meane time he did eate, drincke, and was merry. 
When hee went through the streetes, the people came 
forth to worship him, and every one brought him an almes, 
with children and sicke folkes, that he might cure them, 
and bless them, suffering him to doe all things at his plea- 
sure, onely hee was accompanied with tenne or twelve men 
lest he should flie. And he (to the end he might be rever- 
enced as he passed) sometimes sounded vppon a small flute, 
that the people might prepare to worship him. The feast 
being come, and hee growne fatte, they killed him, opened 
him, and eat him, making a solempne sacrifice of him. 

In trueth, it was a pittifull thing to consider in what sort 
Sathan held this people in his subiection, and doth many to 

^ Hvaca was a sacred thing or place. Huauque is brother in Quichua. 


Lib. v. 


this day, which commit the like cruelties and abominations, 
with the losse of the miserable soules and bodies of such as 
they offer to him, and he laughs and mockes at the foUie of 
these poore miserable creatures^ who deserve well for their 
offences, to be forsaken of the most high God, to the power 
of their adversary, whom they have chosen for their god 
and support. But seeing wee have spoken sufficient of the 
Indians idolatrie ; it followes that we treate of their Religion, 
or rather Superstition, which they vse in their sacrifices, 
temples, ceremonies, and the rest. 

Chap. xi. — How the Devlll hath lahoured to mahe himself 

eqiiall vnto God, and to imitate him in Ids Sacrifices, 

Religion J and Sacraments. 

Before wee come to this point, we ought to consider one 
tbing, which is worthie of speciall regard, the which is, how 
the Divell, by his pride, hath opposed himself to God ; and 
that which God, by his wisedome, hath decreed for his 
honour and service, and for the good and health of man, 
the Divell strives to imitate and to pervert, to bee honoured, 
and to cause men to be damned : for as we see the great 
God hath Sacrifices, Priests, Sacraments, Religious Prophets, 
and Ministers, dedicated to his divine service and holy cere- 
monies, so the Divell hath his sacrifices, priests, his kinds 
of sacraments, his ministers appointed, his secluded and 
fained holinesse, with a thousand sortes of false prophets. 
All which will be pleasant to vnderstand, being declared in 
particular, and of no small fruite for him that shall remem- 

joiiiiv. ber, how the Divell is the father of lies, as the truth saieth 
in the Gospel; and therefore hee seekes to vsurpe to him- 
selfe the glorie of God, and to counterfeit the light by his 

Exod. vii. darknes. The Sooth-saiers of Egipt, taught by their master 
Sathan, laboured to do wonders, like vnto those of Moses 


and AaroUj to be eqaall vnto them. We reade in the Booke ^^^- ^• 
of ludgeSj of that Micas, Priest of the vaine Idoll, which 
vsed the same ornaments which were vsed in the Tabernacle 
of the true God, as the Ephod, the Seraphin, and other 
things. There is scarce any thing instituted by lesus 
Christ our Saviour in his Lawe of his Gospel, the which 
the Divell hath not counterfeited in some sort, and carried 
to his Gentiles, as may be scene in reading that which we 
hold for certaine, by the report of men worthie of credite, 
of the customes and ceremonies of the Indians, whereof we 
will treate in this Booke. 

Chap. xii. — Of the Templea that were found at the hidies. 

Beginning then with their Temples, even as the great 
God would have a house dedicated, where his holy name 
might be honoured, and that it should be particularly vowed 
to his service ; even so the Devil, by his wicked practises, 
perswaded Infidells to build him prowd Temples, and par- 
ticular Oratories and Sanctuaries. In every Province of 
Peru, there was one principall Guaca,^ or house of adoration; 
and besides it, there was one generall throughout all the 
Kingdome of the Yncas ; amongst the which there hath 
beene two famous and notable, the one which they called 
Pachacamac, is foure leagues from Lima, whereat this day 
they see the mines of a most ancient and great building, 
out of the which Francisco Pizarro and his people drew in- 
finite treasure, of vessell and pottes of gold and silver, 
which they brought when they tooke the Ynca Atahualpa. 
There are certaine memories and discourses which say, 
that in this Temple the Divell did speake visibly, and 
gave answers by his Oracle, and that sometimes they did 
see a spotted snake j and it was a thing very common and 

^ Huaca. 


^^^- ^- approved at the Indies, that the Devill spake and answered 

in these false Sanctuaries, deceiving this miserable people. 

But where the Gospel is entred, and the Crosse of Christ 

planted, the father of lies is become mute, as Plutarch writes 

piu lib. de of his time '^Cur cessaverit Pithias fondere oracuW^ and 


apoVpro lustiue Martir treates amply of the silence which Christ 
imposed to devills, which spake by Idolls, as it had been 
before much prophecied of in the holy Scripture. The 
manor which the Infidel Ministers and Enchanters had to 
consult with their gods, was as the Devill had taught them. 
It was commonly in the night they entred backward to their 
idoll, and so went bending their bodies and head, after an 
vglie manor, and so they consulted with him. The answer 
he made, was commonly like vnto a fearefull hissing, or to 
a gnashing which did terrific them ; and all that he did ad- 
vertise or command them, was but the way to their perdi- 
tion and mine. There are few of these Oracles found now, 
through the mercy of God, and great powre of lesus 
Christ. There hath beene in Peru another Temple and 
Oratorio, most esteemed, which was in the Cittie of Cusco, 
where at this day is the monasterie of Santo Domingo. We 
may see it hath been a goodly and a stately worke by the 
pavement and stones of the building, which remaine to this 
day. This Temple was like to the Pantheon of the Romans, 
for that it was the house and dwelling of all the gods ; for 
the Kings Yncas did there behold the gods of all the 
Nations and provinces they had conquered, every Idoll 
having his private place, whither they of that Province 
came to worship it with an excessive charge of things 
which they brought for his service. And thereby they 
supposed to keep safel}^ in obedience those Provinces which 
they had conquered, holding their gods as it were in hostage. 
In this same house was the Punchao,^ which was an Idoll of 
the Sunne, of most fine gold, wrought with great riches of 
1 Panchau, the day; hence the Sim. 


stones,, tlie which was placed to the East, with so great Art, 
as the sun at its rising did cast his beames thereon : and as 
it was of most fine mettall^ his beames did reflect with such 
a brightnes that it seemed another Sunne. The Yncas did 
worship this for their God^ and the Pachayacha/ which 
signifies the Creator of heaven. They say, that at the spoile 
of this so rich a Temple, a souldier had for his part this 
goodly plate of gold of the Sunne. And as play was then 
in request he lost it all in one night at play, whence come 
the proverb they have in Peru for great gamesters, saying 
that they play the Sunne before it riseth.^ 

Lib. v. 

Chap. xiii. — Of the Proivd Temples at Mexico, 

The Superstitions of the Mexicaines have without com- 
parison been greater than the rest, as well in their cere- 
monies as in the greatnes of their Temples, the which in 
old time the Spaniards called by this word Cu, which word 
might bee taken from the Ilanders of Santo Domingo, or of 
Cuba, as many other wordes that are in vse, the which are 
neyther from Spaine nor from any other language now vsuall 
among the Indians, as is Mays, Chico, Yaquiano, Chapeton, 
and other like. There was in Mexico, this Cu, the famous 
Temple of Yitziliputzli ; it had a very great circuite and 
within a faire Court. It was built of great stones, in fashion 
of snakes tied one to another, and the circuite was called 
Coatepantli, which is a circuite of snakes ; vppon the toppe 
of every chamber and oratorie where the Idolls were, was a 
fine piller wrought with small stones, blacke as iette, set in 
goodly order, the ground raised vp with white and red, 
which below gave a great light ; vpon the top of the pillar 
were battlements very artificially made, wrought like snails, 

' Pacha-yachachic^ " The teacher of the universe". 

2 Mancio Serra de Leguisamo. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 272, and note. 

Liu. v. 


supported by two Indians of stone, sitting, holding candle- 
sticks in their hands, the which were Hke Croisants gar- 
nished and enriched at the ends with yellow and green 
feathers and long fringes of the same. Within the circuite 
of this court there were many chambers of religious men, 
and others that were appointed for the service of the Priests 
and Popes, for so they call the soveraigne Priests which 
serve the Idoll. This Court is so great and spatious, as 
eight or ten thousand persons did dance easily in round 
holding hands, the which was an vsuall custome in that 
Realme, although it seeme to many incredible. 

There were foure gates or entries, at the East, West, 
North, and South, at every one of these gates beganne a 
faire cawsey of two or three leagues long. There was in 
the midst of the Lake where the Cittie of Mexico is built 
foure large cawseies in crosse, which did much beautifie it, 
vpon every portall or entery was a God or Idoll, having the 
visage turned to the causey right against the Temple gate 
of Vitziliputzli. There were thirtie steppes of thirtie fadome 
long, and they divided from the circuit of the court by a 
streete that went betwixt them ; vpon the toppe of these 
steppes there was a walke of thirtie foote broad, all 
plaistered with chalke, in the midst of which walke was 
a Pallisado artificially made of very high trees, planted in 
order a fadome one from another. These trees were very 
bigge, and all pierced with small holes from the foote to the 
top, and there were roddes did runne from one tree to 
another, to the which were chained or tied many dead mens 
heads. Ypon every rod were twentie seniles, and these 
ranckes of seniles continue from the foote to the toppe of 
the tree. This Pallissado was full of dead mens sculls from 
one end to the other, the which was a wonderful] mournefuU 
sight and full of horror. These were the heads of such as 
had beene sacrificed ; for after they were dead, and had 
eaten the flesh, the head was delivered to the Ministers of 


the Temple, which tied them in this sort vntill they fell off ^_^ 
by morcells, and then had they a care to set others in their 
places. Ypon the toppe of the Temple were two stones or 
chappells^ and in them were the two Idolls which I have 
spoken of, Yitziliputzli and his companion Tlalot. These 
Chappells were carved and graven very artificially, and so 
high that to ascend vp to it there was a staire of stone of 
sixscore steppes. Before these Chambers or Chappells 
there was a Court of fortie foote square, in the midst 
whereof was a high stone of five hand breadth, poynted in 
fashion of a Pyramide ; it was placed there for the sacri- 
ficing of men, for being laid on their backes it made their 
bodies to bend, and so they did open them and pull out 
their hearts, as I shall show heereafter. There were in the 
Cittie of Mexico eight or nine other Temples, the which 
were ioyned one to another within one great circuite and 
had their private staires, their courts, their chambers, and 
their dortoires. The entries of some were to the East, 
some to the West, others to the South, and some to the 
North. All these Temples were curiously wrought, and 
compassed in with divers sortes of battlements and pictures, 
with many figures of stones, being accompanied and fortefied 
with great and large spurres or platformes. They were 
dedicated to divers gods ; but next to the Temple of Yitz- 
iliputzli was that of Tescalipuca, which was the god of 
penaunce and of punishments, very high and well built. 

There were foure steps to ascend, on the toppe was a flat 
or table of sixe score foote broad, and ioyning vnto it was a 
hall hanged with tapistry and curtins of diverse colours and 
works. The doore thereof being low and large was alwayes 
covered with a vaile, and none but the priests might enter 
in. All this Temple was beutified with diverse images and 
pictures most curiously ; for that these two Temples were 
as the cathedrall churches, and the rest in respect of them 
as parishes and hermitages ; they were so spatious and had 

Lib. v. 


SO many chambers, tliat there were iu them places for the 
luiiiisterie,, colleges, schooles, and houses for priests, whereof 
wee will intreate heereafter. This may suffice to conceive 
the devills pride and the misery of this wretched nation, 
who with so great expence of their goods, their labour, and 
their lives, did thus serve their capitall enimy, who pre- 
tended nothing more than the destruction of their soules 
and consumption of their bodies. But yet they were well 
pleased, having an opinion in their so great an error that 
they were great and mighty gods to whome they did these 

: Chap. xiv. — Of the Priestes and their offices. 

We find among all the nations of the world, men specially 
dedicated to the service of the true God, or to the false, 
which serve in sacrifices, and declare vnto the people what 
their gods command them. Ther was in Mexico a strange 
curiositie vpon this point. And the devill counterfeiting 
the vse of the Church of God, hath placed in the order of 
his Priests, some greater or superiors, and some lesse, the 
one as Acolites, the other as Levites, and that which hath 
made me most to woonder, was, that the devil would vsurpe 
to himselfe the service of God ; yea and vse the same name : 
for the Mexicaines in their antient tongue called their hie 
Priests Papes, as they should say soveraigne Bishops, as it 
appeares now by their Histories. The Priests of Vitzliputzli 
succeeded by linages of certaine quarters of the Citty, de- 
puted for that purpose, and those of other idolls came by 
election, or being offered to the temple in their infancy. 
The dayly exercise of the Priestes was to cast incense on 
the idoUes, which was doone foure times in the space of a 
naturall day. The first at breake of day, the second at 
noone, the third at Sunne setting, and the fourth at mid- 
night. At midnight all the chiefe officers of the Temple did 


rise, and in steade of bells^ they sounded a long time vpon 
trumpets^ cornets and flutes very heavily ; which being 
ended, he that did the office that weeke stept foorth attyred 
in a white roabe after the Dalmatike manner, with a censor 
in his hand full of coales, which he tooke from the harth 
burning continually before the Altare ; in the other hand 
he had a purse full of incense, which he cast into the censor, 
and as he entred the place where the idoll was_, he incensed 
it with great reverence, then tooke he a cloth, with the 
which he wiped the Altar and the curtins. This doone, they 
went all into a Chappell, and there did a certaine kinde of 
rigorous and austere penaunce, beating themselves, and 
drawing of blood, as I shall shew in the treatise of Penance 
which the Divell hath taught to his creatures ; and heereof 
they never fayled at these Mattins at Midnight. None other 
but the Priestes might entermeddle with their sacrifices, 
and every one did imploy himselfe according to his dignity 
and degree. They did likewise preach to the people at some 
feastes, as I will shew when we treate thereof. They had 
revenues, and great offerings were made vnto them. I will 
speake heereafter of their vnction in Consecrating their 
Priestes. In Peru the Priestes were entertained of the 
revenues and inheritance of their God, which they called 
Chacaras, which were many and also verie rich. 

Lib. v. 

Chap. xv. — Of the monastery of Virgins which the divell hath 
invented for his service. 

As the religious life, (whereof many servants of God have 
made profession in the holy Church, immitating lesus Christ 
and his holy Apostles) is very pleasing in the sight of his 
divine maiesty, by the which his holy Name is so honoured, 
and his Church beutified : So the father of lies hath laboured 
to imitate and counterfeit him heerein ; yea, as it were, 
hath striven with God in the observance and austere life of 


LiB.v. ]^jg niinisters. There were in Peru many monasteries of 
Virgines (for there are no other admitted), at the least one 
in everie Province. In these monasteries there were two 
sortes of women, one antient, which they called Mamaco- 
mas,-*^ for the instruction of the yoong ; and the other was of 
yoong maidens, placed there for a certaine time^ and after 
they were drawn foorth^ either for their gods or for the 
Ynca. They called this house or monastery AcUaguagi,^ 
which is to say, the house of the chosen. Every monastery 
had his Yicar or Governour called Appopanaca/ who had 
liberty and power to choose whome he pleased, of what 
qualitie soever^ being vnder eyght yeares of age, if they 
seemed to be of a good stature and constitution. 

These Yirgines thus shut vp into these monasteries were 
instructed by the Mamacomas in diverse thinges needefull 
for the life of man, and in the customes and ceremonies of 
their gods ; and afterwards they tooke them from thence, 
being above foureteene, sending them to the Court with sure- 
gards, whereof some were appoynted to serve the Guacas 
and Sanctuaries, keeping their virginities for ever : some 
others were for the ordinary sacrifices that were made of 
maidens, and other extraordinary sacrifices, they made for 
the health, death, or warres of the Ynca : and the rest 
served for wives and concubines to the Ynca, and vnto other 
his kinsfolkes and captaines, vnto whome hee gave them, 
which was a great and honourable recompence : This dis- 
tribution was vsed every yeare. These monasteries pos- 
sessed rents and revenues for the maintenaunce of these 
Virgins, which were in great numbers. It was not lawfull 
for any father to refuse his daughters when the Appopanaca 

» Maina-cuna, " Mothers". Cuna is the plural particle. 

3 Aclla, selected or chosen ; Huasl^ a house. 

' Ajm, chief ; Panaca, from Pana, which means the sister of a brother, 
Panaca is the archaic genitive. Apu-panaca is literally " the chief over 
sisters of the brethren". The Apu-panaca vras the official who selected 
the virgins, one over every llunu or 10,000 souls. 


required them for the service of these monasteries. Yea, _^^^'_ 
many fathers did willingly oflfer their daughters, supposing 
it was a great merit to be sacrificed for the Ynca. If any of 
these Momacomas or Acllas were found to have trespassed 
against their honour, it was an inevitable chasticement to 
bury them alive, or to put them to death by some other 
kind of cruell torment. 

The devill hath even in Mexico had some kind of religious 
women, although their profession was but for one yeare, 
and it was in this sorte : Within this great circuit whereof 
we have spoken, which was in the principall temple, there 
were two houses like cloysters, the one opposite to the 
other, one of men, the other of women : In that of women, 
they were virgines onely, of twelve or thirteene yeares of age, 
which they called the Maydes of Penaunce. They were as 
many as the men, and lived chastly and regularly, as virgins 
dedicated to the service of their god. Their charge was, to 
sweepe and make cleane the temple, and every morning to 
prepare meate for the idoll and his ministers, of the almes the 
religious gathered. The foode they prepared for the idoll were 
small loaves in the forme of handes and feete, and others 
twisted as marchpane ;^ and with this bread they prepared cer- 
taine sawses, which they cast dayly before the idoll, and his 
priests did eate it, as those of Baal, that Daniel speaketh of. Dan. xiv, 
These virgins had their haire cutte, and then they let them 
growe for a certaine time : they rose at midnight to the 
idolls mattins, which they dayly celebrated, performing the 
same exercises the religious did. They had their Abbesses, 
who imployed them to make cloth of diverse fashions for the 
ornament of their idolls and temples. Their ordinary habite 
was all white, without any worke or colour. They did their 
penance at midnight, sacrificing and wounding themselves, 
and, piercing the toppe of their eares, they layde the blood 
which issued foorth vpon their cheekes ; and after, to wash 

^ Melcochas, honey cakes. 

Lib. V, 


off the blood, they bathed themselves in a pool, which was 
within their monastery. They lived very honestly and dis- 
creetly j and if any were found to have offended, although 
but lightly, presently they were put to death without re- 
mission, saying, shoe had polluted the house of their god. 
They helde it for an augure and advertisement, that some 
one of the religious, man or woman, had committed a fault 
when they saw a Ratte or a Mowse passe, or a Bat in the 
chappell of their idoll, or that they had gnawed any of the 
vailes ; for that they say a Catte or a Bat would not adven- 
ture to committe such an indignity, if some offence had not 
gone before, and then they beganne to make search of the 
fact, and having discovered the offender or offenders, of 
what quality soever, they presently put them to death. 

None were receyvediuto this monastery but the daughters 
of one of the sixe quarters, named for that purpose : and 
this profession continued, as I have sayd, the space of one 
whole yeare: during the which time, their fathers, and they 
themselves, had made a vowe to serve the idoll in this man- 
ner, and from thence they went to be married. These virgins 
of Mexico, and more especially they of Peru, had some re- 
semblance to the Vestall Virgins of Rome, as the Histories 
shew, to the end wee may vnderstand how the devill hath 
desired to be served by them that observe Yirginitie, not 
that chastitie is pleasing vnto him, for he is an vucleane 
spirite, but for the desire he hath to take from the great 
God, as much as in him lieth, this glory to be served with 
cleannesse and integrity. 

Chap. xvi. — Of fJie Monasteries of religions men that the 
devill hath invented for superstition. 

It is well knowne, by Letters written by the fathers of 
our company from lappon, the number aud multitude of 
religious men that are in those Provinces, whome they call 


Lib. v. 

BonQos, and also their superstitions, customes, and lies, 
Some fathers that have been in those countries report of 
these Bon9os and religious men of China, saying, that there 
are many Orders, and of diverse sortes, some came vnto 
them clad in white, bearing hoodes, and others all in blacke, 
without haire or hoode, and these are commonly little 
esteemed, for the Mandarins or ministers of Justice whippe 
them, as they do the rest of the people. They make pro- 
fession not to eate any flesh, fish, nor any thing that hath 
life, but onely Rice and hearbes ; but in secret they do eate 
any thing, and are worse than the common people. They 
say the religious men which are at the Court, which is at 
Paquin,^ are very much esteemed. The Mandarins go com- 
monly to recreate themselves at the Varelas" or monasteries 
of these Menkes, and returne in a manner alwayes drunke. 
These monasteries commonly are without the townes, and 
have temples within their close : yet, in China they are not 
greatly curious of idolles, or of temples, for the Mandarins 
little esteeme idolls, and do hold it for a vaiue thing, and 
worthy to be laughed at ; yea, they beleeve there is no 
other life, nor Paradice, but to be in the office of the Man- 
darins, nor any other hel than the prisons they have for 
offendours. As for the common sorte, they say it is neces- 
sarv to entertaine them with idolatrv, as the Philosopher ^^\^*^- pi' 

•^ 'J ' r metaph. 

himself teacheth his Governors : and in the Scripture it was 

an excuse which Aaron gave for the idol of the Calfe, that Exodus 

" xxxii. 

he caused to be made ; yet the Chinois vsed to carry in the 
poupe of their shippes, in little chapels, a virgin imbosst_, 
set in a chaire with two Chinois before her kneeling in manor 
of Angels, having a light burning there both day and night. 
And when they are to sette saile they do many sacrifices 
and ceremonies, with a great noyse of drummes and bells, 
casting papers burnt at the poupe. 

Comming to our religious men, I doe not knowe that in 
1 Peking. 2 Viliaras. 

Lib. v. 


Peru there is any proper houses for men, but for the 
Priests and Sorcerers, whereof there is an infinite number. 
But it seeineth, that in Mexico the devil hath set a due ob- 
servation ; for within the circuit of the great temple there 
were two monasteries, as before hath bin sayd, one of Vir- 
gins, whereof I have spoken, the other of yoong men se- 
cluded, of eighteene or twenty yeares of age, which they 
called religious. They vveare shaved crownes, as the Friars 
in these partes, their haire a little longer which fell to the 
middest of their eare, except the hinder part of the head, 
which they let growe the breadth of foure fingers downe to 
their shoulders, and which they tied vppe in tresses. These 
young men that served in the temple of Yitzliputzli lived 
poorely and chastely, and did the office of Levites, mini- 
string to the priests and cliiefe of the temple their incense, 
lights, and garments ; they swept and made cleane the holy 
places, bringing wood for a continual fire to the harth of 
their god, which was like a lampe that stille burnt before 
the Altar of their idoll. Besides these yong men there 
were other little boyes, as novices, that served for manuall 
vses, as to deck the temple with boughs, roses, and reeds, 
give the Priests water to wash with, give them their rasors 
to sacrifice, and goe with such as begged almes to carry it. 
All these had their superiors, who had the governement over 
them; they lived so honestly, as when they came in publike 
where there were any women, they carried their heads very 
lowe, with their eyes to the ground, not daring to beholde 
them ; they had linnen garments, and it was lawfull for them 
to goe into the Citty foure or sixe together, to aske almes in 
all quarters : and when they gave them none, it was lawful 
to go into the corne fields and gather the eares of corne or 
clusters of mays, which they most needed, the Maister not 
daring to speake nor hinder them. They had this liberty 
because they lived poorely, and had no other revenues but 
almes. There might not be above fifty live in penance, 


rising at midnight to sound the cornets and trumpets to ^"- ^• 
awake the people. Every one watched the idoll in his turne, 
lest the fire before the Altar should die; they gave the 
censor, with the which the Priest at midnight incensed the 
idoll, and also in the morning, at noone, and at night. 
They were very subject and obedient to their superiors, and 
passed not any one poynt that was commaunded them. 
And at midnight, after the priest had ended his censing, 
they retired themselves into a secret place apart, sacrificing 
and drawing blood from the calfes of their legges with 
sharpe bodkins; with this blood they rubbed their temples 
and vnder their eares ; and, this sacrifice finished, they pre- 
sently washt themselves in a little poole appoynted to that 
end. These yong men did not annoint their heads and 
bodies with any behin} as the Priestes did ; their garments 
were of a coarse white linnen cloth they do make there. 
These exercises and strictnesse of penance continued a 
whole yeare, during which time they lived with great auste- 
ritie and solitarinesse. In truth it is very strange to see 
that this false opinion of religion hath so great force among 
these yoong men and maidens of Mexico that they will 
serve the Divell with so great rigor and austerity, which 
many of vs doe not in the service of the most high God, the 
which is a great shame and confusion ; for those amongst 
vs that glory to have doone a small penaunce, although this 
exercise of the Mexicaines was not continuall, but for a 
yeare onely, which made it the more tollerable. 

Chap. xvii. — Of Penance and the Strictnes the Indians have 
vsed at the DivelVs jpersioasion. 

Seeing we are come to this point, it shall bee good both 
to discover the cursed pride of Sathan and to confound it, 

^ Pitch, a coarse wax. 



Lib. v. r^Yid somowliat to quicken our coldnes and slotli in tlie ser- 
vice of the great God ; to speake sometliing of the rigor and 
strange penance this miserable people vsed at the Divell's 
persvvasion, like to the false Prophets of Baal^ who did beate 
3 uccr. and wound themselves with lancets, drawing forth bloud ; 

xviii. ^ ^ 

or, like those that sacrificed their sonnes and daughters 
Paai. cv. vnto loathsome Belphegor/ passing them through the fire, as 

Num. XXV. 

4Reg. xxi. holy Writ testifieth ; for Sathan hath alwayes desired to be 
served, to the great hurte and spoyle of man. It hath beene 
said that the priests and religious of Mexico rose at mid- 
night, and having cast incense before the idoll, they retired 
themselves into a large place, where there were many lights ; 
and, sitting downe, every one took a poynt of Maguay/ 
which is like vnto an awle or sharpe bodkin, with the which, 
or with some other kindes of launcets or rasors, they pierced 
the calfes of their legges neare to the bone, drawing foorth 
much blood, with the which they annoynted their temples, 
and dipt these bodkins or lancets in the rest of the blood, 
then set they them vpon the battlements of the Court, 
stickt in gloabes or bowles of strawe, that all might see and 
know the penance they did for the people : they do wash off 
the blood in a lake appoynted for that purpose, which they 
call Ezapangue, which is to say water of blood. 

There were in the Temple a great number of bodkins or 
lancets, for that they might not vse one twice. Moreover, 
these Priests and Keligious men vsed great fastings, of five 
or ten daies together, before any of their great feastes, and 
they were vnto them as our foure ember weekes ; they were 
so strict in continence that some of them (not to fall into 
any sensualitie) slit their members in the midst, and did a 
thousand thinges to make themselves vnable, lest they should 
offend their gods. They drunke no wine and slept little, for 
that the greatest part of their exercises were by night, com- 

' " Al siizio Beelfegor." 
"^ Maguey, Mexican aloe. 


mitting great cruelties and martiring themselves for the 
Divell, and all to be reputed great fasters and penitents. 

They did vse to discipline themselves with cordes full of 
knotteSj and not they onely, but the people also vsed this 
punishment and whipping in the procession and feast they 
made to the idoll Tezcatlipuca/ the which (as I have said 
before) is the god of penance ; for then they all carried in 
their hands new cordes of the threed of Maguey a fadome 
long, with a knot at the end, and therewith they whipped 
themselves, giving great lashes over their shoulders. The 
Priests did fast five daies together before this feast, eating 
but once a day, and they lived apart from their wives, not 
going out of the Temple daring those five daies; they did 
whip themselves rigorously in the manner aforesaid. The 
lesuites which have written from the Indies treate amply of 
the penances and exceeding rigor the Bonzes^ vse, all which 
was but counterfait, and more in shew then in trueth. In 
Peru, to solemnize the feast of the Ytu^ which was great, all the 
people fasted two daies; during the which they did not ac- 
company with their wives, neyther did they eate any meate 
with salt or axi,"^ nor drinke chicha. They did much vse 
this kinde of fasting for some sinnes, and did penance, whip- 
ping themselves with sharp stinging nettles, and often they 
strooke themselves over the shoulders with certain stones. 
This blinde nation, by the perswasion of the Divell, did 
transport themselves into craggy mountaines, where some- 
times they sacrificed themselves, casting themselves downe 
from some high rocke. All which are but snares and de- 
ceites of him that desires nothing more then the losse and 
mine of man. 

^ Tezcatlipoca was the most important of the Mexican gods. The 
prayers to him are given by Sahagun. His principal image was cut out 
of obsidian. 2 Bonzes, Buddhist Priests. 

' Hattm is "great" in Quichua. * Chile pepper. 

z 2 

Lib. v. 


Cftap. xviti. — Of the Sacrifices the Indians made to the Dlvell, 

and whereof. 

LiB.v. It hath beene in the aboundance and diversitie of Offrings 

and Sacrifices taught vnto the Infidells for their idolatrie, 
that the enemy of God and man hath most shewed his sub- 
tiltie and wickednes. And as it is a fit thing and proper to 
religion to consume the substance of the creatures for the 
service and honour of the Creator, the which is by sacrifice, 
even so the father of lies hath invented the meanes to cause 
the creatures of God to be offered vnto him, as to the Author 
and Lord thereof. The first kinde of sacrifices which men 
vsed was very simple; for Caine offered the fruites of the 
earth, and Abell the best of his cattell, the which likewise 
Gen. XV. ^^6 and Abraham did afterwardes and the other patriarkes, 
vntil that this ample ceremony of Levi was given by Moses, 
wherein there are so many sortes and differences of sacrifices 
of divers things for divers affaires and with divers cere- 
monies. In like sort, among some nations, hee hath beene 
content to teach them to sacrifice of what they had ; but, 
among others, hee hath passed farre, giving them a multi- 
tude of customes and ceremonies vpon sacrifices, and so 
many observances as they are wonderfull. And thereby it 
appeares plainely that he meanes to contend and equall him- 
selfe to the ancient law, and in many things vsurpe the same 
ceremonies. Wee may draw all the sacrifices the Infidells 
vse into three kindes — one of insensible things, another of 
beasts, and the third of men. They did vse in Peru to sacri- 
fice coca which is an hearb they esteeme much, of mays 
which is their wheate, of coloured feathers, and of chaquiiyj} 
which otherwise they call mollo,^ of shelles or oysters, and 
sometimes gold and silver being in figures of little beasts. 

' Chaqidra. See Cieza tie Leon, pp. 176, 405 ; and G. de la Vega, i, 
lib. vm, cap. 5. * Mulhi, Quichua for a shell. 


Also of the fine stufie of Gunihij^ of carved and sweete wood_, ^^^- ^• 
and most commonly tallow burnt. They made these offer- 
ings or sacrifices for a prosperous winde, and faire weather, 
or for their health, and to be delivered from some dangers 
and mishappes. Of the second kinde their ordinary sacri- 
fice was of GuijeSj^ which are small beasts like rabbets, the 
which the Indians eate commonly. And in matters of im- 
portance, or when they were rich men, they did offer Pacos,^ 
or Indian sheepe bare or with wooll, observing curiously the 
numbers, colours, and times. The manner of killing their 
sacrifices, great or small, which the Indians did vse accord- 
ing to their ancient ceremonies, is the same the Moores vse 
at this day, the which they call Alquible,^ hsuaging the beast 
by the right fore legge, turning his eyes towards the sun, 
speaking certain wordes according to the qualitie of the 
sacrifice they slew; for, if it were of colour, their words were 
directed to Chuquilla^ and to the Thunder, that they might 
want no water; if it were white and smoothe they did offer 
it to the Sunne with certain words ; if it had a fleece they 
did likewise offer it him with some others, that he might 
shine vpon them and favour their generation; if it were a 
GiianacOj which is gray, they directed their sacrifice to 
Viracocha. In Cusco they did every yeare kill and sacrifice 
with this ceremony a shorne sheepe to the Sunne, and did 
burne it, clad in a red waste-coate ; and when they did 
burne it, they cast certaine small baskets of Coca into the 
fire, which they call Vilcaronca, for which sacrifice they have 
both men and beasts appointed which serve to no other vse. 
They did likewise sacrifice small birdes, although it were 
not so vsuall in Peru as in Mexico, where the sacrificing of 

* Ccompi, Quichua for fine cloth. See G. de la Vega^ i, lib. v, cap. 6. 
'^ Cuy (for Ccoy), a guinea pig. See G. de la Vega, i, lib. vi, cap. 6. 
3 Alpacas. 

* Kibla, the place to which Muhammadans look when praying. 

* Chin/idlla (Chuqui-yUa), the Peruvian god of thunder and lightning. 
See Molina MS. {Laics and Rhea of the Yncas, pp. 26, 56, 155, 167). 


Lib, v. quailes was very ordinarie. Those of Peru did sacrifice the 
birdes of the Puna^ for so they call the desart, when they 
should go to the warres, for to weaken the forces of their 
adversaries Huacas. They called these sacrifices Guzcovicsa, 
or Gontevicsaj or JIuallavicsa, or Sopavlcsay and they did it 
in this manner : they tooke many kindes of small birdes of 
the desart, and gathered a great deale of a thornie wood, 
which they called YanlUj the which being kindled they 
gathered together these small birdes. This assembly they 
called Quiso. Then did tliey cast them into the fire, about 
the which the officers of the sacrifice went with certaine 
round stones carved, whereon were painted many snakes, 
lions, toades, and tigres, vttering this word Vsachum,^ which 
signifies, let the victorie be given vnto vs, with other wordes, 
whereby they sayed the forces of their enemies Huacas were 
confounded. And they drew forth certaine black sheepe, 
which had beene kept close some dales without meate, the 
which they called Vrcu,^ and in killing them they spake these 
words: '*^As the hearts of these beasts be weakened, so let 
our enemies be weakned.''^ And if they found in these sheep 
that a certaine peece of flesh behind the heart were not con- 
sumed by fasting and close keeping, they then held it for an 
ill augure. They brought certaine black dogs, which they 
call Apurucos,^ and slew them, casting them into a plaine with 
certaine ceremonies, causing some kinde of men to eate this 
flesh, the which sacrifices they did lest the Ynca should be 
hurt by poison ; and for this cause they fasted from morn- 
ing vntill the stars were vp, and then they did glut and de- 
file themselves like to the Moores. This sacrifice was most 
fit for them to withstand their enemies gods ; and, although 
at this day a great part of these customes have ceased, the 
wars being ended, yet remaines there some relikes by reason 
of the private or generall quarrels of the Indians, or the 

' From Usackuni, I accomplish. 2 Xhe male animal. 

^ Apu^ chief. Iluccu^ old or dccrepid. In Quicluui allco is a dog. 


Caciques, or in their citties. They did likewise offer and ^^°- '^• 
sacrifice shelles of the sea which they call Molloj^ and they 
offered them to the fountaines and springs, saying that these 
shells were daughters of the sea^ the mother of all waters. 
They gave vnto these shells sundrie names according to the 
color, and also they vse them to divers ends. They vsed 
them in a manor in all kinde of sacrifices^ and yet to this 
day they put beaten shells in their Chicha for a superstition. 
Finally they thought it convenient to ofi'er sacrifices of 
everything they did sow or raise vp. There were Indians 
appointed to doe these sacrifices to the fountaines, springs_, 
and rivers, which passed through the townes or by their 
Chacras, which are their farmes^ which they did after seede 
time, that they might not cease running, but alwaies water 
their groundes. The sorcerers did coniure to know what 
time the sacrifices should be made, which, being ended, they 
did gather of the contribution of the people what should be 
sacrificed and delivered them to such as had the charge of 
these sacrifices. They made them in the beginning of win- 
ter, at such time as the fountaines, springs, and rivers did 
increase by the moistures of the weather, which they did 
attribute to their sacrifices. They did not sacrifice to the 
fountaines and springs of the desarts. To this day con- 
tinues the respect they had to fountaines, springs, pooles, 
brookes, or rivers which passe by their citties or chacras, 
even vnto the fountaines and rivers of the desarts. They 
have a speciall regard and reverence to the meeting of two 
rivers, and there they wash themselves for their health, 
anointing themselves first with the fiower of mays, or some 
other things, adding therevnto divers ceremonies, the which 
they do likewise in their bathes. 

' Mullu, a shell. 


Chap. xix. — Of the Sacrifices they made of men, 

^"- ^- The most pittifull disaster of this poore people is their 
slavery vnto the Devill, sacrificing men vnto him, which are 
the Images of God. In many nations they had vsed to kill 
(to accompany the dead, as hath beene declared) such per- 
sons as had been agreeable vnto him, and whome they 
imagined might best serve him in the other world. Besides 
this, they vsed in Peru to sacrifice yong children of foure or 
six yeares old vnto tenne; and the greatest parte of these 
sacrifices were for the affaires that did import the Ynca, as 
in sickness for his health, and when he went to the warres 
for victory, or when they gave the wreathe to their new 
Ynca, which is the marke of a King, as heere the Scepter 
and the Crowne be. In this solemnitie they sacrificed the 
number of two hundred children, from foure to ten yeares 
of age, which was a cruell and inhumane spectacle. The 
manner of the sacrifice was to drowne them and bury them 
with certaine representations and ceremonies; sometimes 
they cutte off their heads, annointing themselves with the 
blood from one eare to another. 

They did likewise sacrifice Yirgines, some of them that 
were brought to the Ynca from the monasteries, as hath 
beene saide. In this case there was a very great and 
generall abuse. If any Indian qualified or of the common 
sorte were sicke, and that the Divine told him confidently 
that he should die, they did then sacrifice his owne sonne to 
the Sunne or to Yirachoca, desiring them to be satisfied 
with him, and that they would not deprive the father of life. 
This cruelty is like to that the holy Scripture speakes of, 
which King Moab vsed in sacrificing his first borne sonne 
vpon the wall in the sight of all Israel, to whome this act 
seemed so mournfull as they would not presse him any 
further, but returned to their houses. The Holy Scripture 


also shewes that the like kinde of sacrifice had been in vse ^^^- ^' 
amongst the barbarous nations of the Cananeans, and lebu- 
seans_, and others, whereof the booke of Wisedome speakes: 
'' They call it peace to live in so great miseries and vexa- 
tions as to sacrifice their own children, or to doe other hid- 
den sacrifices, as to watch whole nights doing the actes of 
fooles, and so they keepe no cleanenesse in their life, nor in 
their marriages, but one through envy takes away the life 
of another, another takes away his wife and his content- 
ment, and all is in confusion, blood, murther, theft, deceipt, 
corruption, infidelitie, seditions, periuries, mutinies, forget- 
fulnesse of God, pollution of soules, change of sexes and 
birth, inconstancie of marriages, and the disorder of adul- 
tery and filthiness j for idolatry is the sincke of all miseries/^ 
The Wise man speaketh this of those people of whome David Psai. cv. 
complaines, that the people of Israel had learned those cus- 
tomes, even to sacrifice their sonnes and daughters to the 
divell, the which was never pleasing nor agreeable vnto God. 
For as hee is the Authour of life, and hath made all these 
things for the commoditie and good of man, so is hee not 
pleased that men should take the lives one from another; 
although the Lord did approve and accept the willingnesse 
of the faithfull patriarke Abraham, yet did hee not consent 
to the deede, which was to cut off the head of his sonne; 
wherein wee see the malice and tyranny of the divell, who 
would be herein as God, taking pleasure to be worshipt with 
the efi*usion of man's blood, procuring by this meanes the 
mine of soule and body together for the deadly hatred he 
beareth to man as his cruell enemy.^ 

* See, on the subject of Peruvian human sacrifices, the volume on 
Laws and Rites of the Yncas^ pp. 54, 58, 79, 85, 100, 166. See also my 
note on the subject in G. de la Veya, i, p. 139. 


Chap. xx. — Of the horrible. sacrifices of men which the Mexi- 

caines vscd. 

Lib. v. Althougli tliey of Peru have surpassed the Mexicaines in 
-the slaughter and sacrifice of their children (for I have not 
read nor vnderstood that the Mexicaines v&ed any such 
sacrifices), yet they of Mexico have exceeded them, yea, 
all the nations of the worlde, in the great number of men 
which they had sacrificed, and in the horrible maner thereof. 
And to the end we may see the great miserie wherein the 
Divell holdes this blind Nation, 1 wil relate particularly 
the custome and inhumane maner which they have observed. 
First, the men they did sacrifice were taken in the warres, 
neyther did they vse these solemne sacrifices but of Captives : 
so as it seemes therein they have followed the custome of 
the Ancients. For as some Authors say they called the 
sacrifice Victima, for this reason, because it was of a con- 
quered thing : they also called it Hostia quasi ah hoste, for 
that it was an offering made of their enemies, although 
they have applied this word to all kindes of sacrifices. In 
truth the Mexicaines did not sacrifice any to their idolls, 
but Captives, and the ordinarie warres they made was onely 
to have Captives for their sacrifices : and therefore when 
they did fight they laboured to take their enemies alive, and 
not to kill them, to inioy their sacrifices. And this was the 
reason which Mote^uma gave to the Marquis del Valle,^ when 
he asked of him why being so mighty, and having con- 
quered so many kingdomes, hee had not subdued the Pro- 
vince of Tlascalla, which was so neere : Mote^uma answered 
him that for two reasons hee had not conquered that Pro- 
vince, although it had beene easie if he would have vnder- 
taken it : the one was for the exercise of the youth of 

' The title conferred upon liernan Cortes. 


Mexico, lest they should fall into idlenes and delight : the ^^°- '^' 
other and the chiefe cause why he had reserved this Pro- 
vince was to have Captives for the sacrifices of their gods. 
The maner they vsed in these sacrifices was_, they assem- 
bled within the palisado of dead mens seniles (as hath 
beene said), such as should be sacrificed, vsing a certaine 
ceremony at the foot of the palisado, placing a great guard 
about them. Presently there stept foorth a Priest, attyred 
with a shorte surplise full of tasselles beneath, who came 
from the top of the temple with an idoll made of paste, of 
wheate and mays mingled with hony, which had the eyes 
made of the graines of greene glasse, and the teeth of the 
graines of mays ; hee descended the steppes of the temple 
with all the speede he could, and mounted on a great stone 
planted vpon a high terrasse in the midst of the court. This 
stone was called Quauxicalli, which is to say the stone of 
Eagle, whereon he mounted by a little ladder, which was 
in the fore part of the terrase, and descended by an other 
staire on the other side, still embracing his idoll. Then 
did he mount to the place where those were that should be 
sacrificed, shewing this idoll to every one in particular, 
saying vnto them this is your god. And having ended his 
shew, he descended by the other side of the staires, and all 
such as should die went in procession vnto the place where 
they should be sacrificed, where they found the Ministers 
ready for that office. The ordinary manner of sacrificing 
was to open the stomake of him that was sacrificed, and 
having pulled out his heart halfe alive, they tumbled the 
man downe the staires of the Temple, which were all im- 
brewed and defiled with blood. And to make it the more 
plaine, sixe sacrificers beeing appoynted to this dignitie, 
came into the place of sacrifice, foure to holde the hands 
and feete of him that should be sacrificed, the fift to holde 
his head, and the sixt to open his stomacke, and to pull out 
the heart of the sacrificed. They called them Chachalmua, 


Lib. v. which ill our tong is as much as the ministers of holy 
things. It was a high dignitie^ and much esteemed amongest 
them, wherein they did inherite and succede as in a fee 
simple. The minister who had the office to kill, which was 
the sixt amongest them, was esteemed and honoured as the 
soveraigne Priest and Bishop, whose name was different, 
according to the difference of times and solemnities. Their 
habites were likewise divers when they came foorth to the 
sacrifice, according to the diversitie of times. The name of 
their chiefe dignitie was Papa and Topilzin;^ their habite and 
robe was a red curtain, after the Dalmatica fashion, with 
tasselles belowe, a crowne of rich feathers, greene, white, 
and yellow vpon his head, and at his eares like pendants 
of golde, wherein were set greene stones, and vnder the 
lip, vpon the middest of the beard, hee had a peece like 
vnto a small canon of an azured stone. These sacrificers 
came with their faces and handes coloured with a shining 
blacke. The other five had their haire much curled, and 
tied vp with laces of leather bound about the middest of the 
head : vpon their forehead they carried small roundelets of 
paper, painted with diverse colours, and they were attired 
in a Dalmatica robe of white, wroght with blacke. With 
this attire they represented the very figure of the Divell, so 
as it did strike feare and terror into all the people to see 
them come forth with so horrible a representation. The 
soveraigne priest carried a great knife in his hand of a large 
and sharpe flint : another priest carried a coller of wood, 
wrought in forme of a snake : all sixe put themselves in 
order, ioyning to this Piramidall stone whereof I have 
spoken, being directly against the doore of the Chappell of 
their idoll. This stone was so pointed as the man which 
was to be sacrificed being laid thereon vpon his backe did 
bend in such sort as letting the knife but fall vpon his 
stomacke it opened very easily in the middest. When 
' Topiltzin, the chief sacrificial ^niest. 


the sacrificers were thus in order they drew forth such as ^"' ^• 
had beene taken in warre, which were to be sacrificed at that 
feast, and being accompanied with a guard of men all naked 
they caused them to mount vp these large staires in ranke 
to the place where the Ministers were prepared : and as 
every one of them came in their order, the six sacrificers 
tooke the prisoner_, one by one foote another by the other, 
and one by one hand another by the other, casting him on 
his backe vpon this pointed stone, where the fift of these 
Ministers put the coller of wood about his necke, and the 
high priest opened his stomacke with the knife, with a 
strange dexteritie and nimblenes, pulling out his heart with 
his hands, the which he shewed smoaking vnto the Sunne, 
to whom he did offer this heate and fume of the heart, and 
presently he turned towardes the idoll, and did cast the 
heart at his face, then did they cast away the body of the 
sacrificed, tumbling it downe the staires of the Temple, the 
stone being set so neere the staires as there were not two 
foote space betwixt the stone and the first steppe, so as with 
one spurne with their foote they cast the body from the 
toppe to the bottome. In this sort one after one they did 
sacrifice all those that were appointed. Being thus slain, 
and their bodies cast downe, their masters, or such as had 
taken them, went to take them vp and carried them away : 
then having divided them amongest them they did eate 
them, celebrating their feast and solemnitie. There were 
ever forty or fifty at the least thus sacrificed, for that they 
had men very expert in taking them. The neighbour 
Nations did the like, imitating the Mexicaines in the customes 
and ceremonies of the service of their gods. 


Chap. xxi. — Of another hind of sacrifices of men luhich the 

Mexicaines vsed. 

Lib. v. There was an other kinde of sacrifice which they made 
in divers feasts, which they called Racaxipe Velitzli, which 
is as much as the fleaing of men.^ They call it so for that 
in some feasts they tooke one or more slaves as they pleased, 
and after they had flead him they with that skinne appa- 
relled a man appoynted to that end. This man went 
dauncing and leaping thorow all the houses and market 
places of the cittie, every one being forced to offer some- 
thing vnto him : and if any one failed hee would strike him 
over the face with a corner of the skinne, defyling him with 
the congealed blood. This invention continued vntill the 
skinne did stinke : during which time, such as went gathered 
together much almes, which they imployed in necessary 
things for the service of their gods. In many of these 
feasts they made a challenge betwixt him that did sacrifice 
and him that should be sacrifyced thus : they tied the slave 
by one foote to a wheele of stone, giving him a sword and 
target in his handes to defend himselfe : then presently 
stept foorth hee that sacrificed him, armed with another 
sword and target : if he that should be sacrificed defends 
himselfe valiantly against the other, and resisted him, hee 
then remayned freed from the sacrifjxe, winning the name 
of a famous Captaine, and so was reputed : but if hee were 
vanquished they then sacrifyced him on the stone where- 
vnto he was tyed. It was an other kinde of sacrifyce, 
whenas they appoynted any slave to be the representation 
of the idoll, saying that it was his picture. They every 
yeare gave one slave to the Priests, that they might never 
want the lively image of their idoll. At his fyrst entry into 
the office, after hee had beene well washed, they attyred 

» Xipeme means flayed. 


him with all the ornaments of the idoll, giving him the i^ib- '«'• 
same name. Hee was that whole yeare reverenced and 
honoured as the idoll itselfe^ and had alwayes with him 
twelve men for his guarde, lest hee should flie^ with which 
guarde they suffered him to goe freely, and where hee would : 
and if by chaunce he fled, the chiefe of the guarde was 
put in his place to represent the idoll, and after to be 

This Indian had the most honourable lodging in all the 
temple, where he did eate and drincke, and whither all the 
chiefe Ministers came to serve and honour him, carrying 
him meate after the manner of great personages. When 
hee went through the streetes of the citie hee was well 
accompanyed with noble men ; he carried a little flute in his 
hand, which sometimes he sounded, to give them knowledge 
when he passed. Then presently the women came forth 
with their little children in their arms, which they presented 
vnto him, saluting him as god. All the rest of the people 
did the like : at night they put him in a strong prison or 
cage, lest he should flie ; and when the feast came they 
sacrificed him, as hath beene sayde. By these and manie 
other meanes hath the Divell abused and entertained these 
poore wretches, and such was the multitude of those that 
had beene sacrificed by this infernall cruelty as it seems a 
matter incredible, for they affirme there were sonje dayes 
five thousand or more, and that there were above twenty 
thousand sacrifyced in diverse places. The divell to inter- 
taine this murther of men, vsed a pleasant and strange in- 
vention, which was, when it pleased the priests of Sathan 
they went to their Kings, telling them how their gods died 
for hunger, and that they should remember them. Presently 
they prepared themselves, and advertised one another that 
their gods required meate, and therefore they should com- 
mand their people to be ready to goe to the warres ; and 
thus the people assembled, and the companies appoynted 


Lib. v. ^vent to field, where they mustred their forces ; and all their 
quarrell and fight was to take one another for sacrifice, 
striving on either side to take what captives they could, so 
as in these battells they laboured more to take then to kill, 
for that all their intention was to take men alive, to give 
them to their idolls to eate, for after that manor brought 
they their sacrifice vnto their gods. And wee must vnder- 
stand that never king was crowned vntill he had subdewed 
some province, from the which hee brought a great number 
of captives for the sacrifices of their gods, so as it was an 
infinit thing to see what blood was spilt in the honour of 
the Divell. 

Chap. xxii. — How the Indians grew weary and could not 
endure the cruelty of Sathan. 

Many of these Barbarians were nowe wearied and tyred 
with such an excessive cruelty in sheading so much blood, 
and with so tedious a tribute to be alwayes troubled to get 
captives for the feeding of their gods, seeming vnto them a 
matter supportable; yet left they not to followe and execute 
their rigorous lawes, for the great awe the ministers of these 
idols kept them in and the cunning wherewith they abused 
this poore people. But inwardly they desired to be freed 
from so heavy a yoke. And it was a great providence of 
God that the first which gave them knowledge of the Lawe 
of Christ found them in this disposition; for, without doubt, 
it seemed to them a good law and a good God to be served 
in this sorte. Heerevpon a grave religious man in New 
Spain told me that when he was in that country hee had 
demaunded of an auntient Indian, a man of qualitie, for 
what reason the Indians hadde so soone received the Lawe 
of lesus Christ and left their owne, without making any 
other proofe, triall, or dispute thereon, for it seemed they 


had changed their religion without any sufficient reason to 
moove them. The Indian answered him: '^Beleeve not, 
Father, that we have embraced the Law of Christ so rashly 
as they say, for I will tell you that we were already weary 
and discontented with such things as the idolls commaunded 
vs, and were determined to leave it and to take another Law. 
But whenas we found that the religion that you preached 
had no cruelties in it, and that it was fit for vs and both iast 
and good, we vnderstood and beleeved that it was the true 
Law, and so we received it willingly/' Which answer of 
this Indian agrees well with that we read in the first Dis- 
course, that Fernand Cortes sent to the Emperor Charles 
the Fift, wherein hee reportes that after he had conquered 
the city of Mexico, being in Cuyoacan, there came Ambas- 
sadors to him from the province and commonwealth of 
Mechoacan, requiring him to send them his law and that he 
would teach them to vnderstand it, because they intended 
to leave their owne, which seemed not good vnto them, 
which Cortes graunted, and at this day they are the best 
Indians and the truest Christians that are in New Spaine. 
The Spaniards that saw these cruell sacrifices resolved with 
all their power to abolish so detestable and cursed a butcher- 
ing of men, and the rather for that in one night before their 
eies they sawe threescore or threescore and tenne Spaniards 
saci'ificed, which had beene taken in a battell given at the 
conquest of Mexico; and another time they found written 
with a cole in a chamber in Tezcuco these wordes: ''Here 
such a miserable man was prisoner with his companions 
whom they of Tezcuco did sacrifice/' 

There happened a very strange thing vpon this subiect, 
and yet true, being reported by men worthie of credite; 
which was that the Spaniards beholding these sacrifices, 
having opened and dravvne out the heart of the lustie yong 
man, and cast him from the toppe of the staires (as their 
custome was) when hee came at the bottome, he said to the 

A A 

Lid. v. 


^^^- '^- Spaniards in his language, ^'Kniglites, they have slaine me," 
the which did greatly moove our men to horror and pittie. 
It is no incredible thing that having his heart pulled out 
hee might speake, seeing that Galen reports that it hath 
often chanced in the sacrifice of beasts, after the heart hath 
Galen lib. been drawuo out and cast vpon the altar the beasts have 

11, de Hip. ^ 

v^acftT^^' breathed; yea, they did bray and cry out alowde, and some- 
^^^* * times did runne. Leaving this question how this might bee 
in nature, J will follow my purpose, which is to shew how 
much these barbarous people did now abhorre this insuport- 
able slaverie they had to that infernall murthering, and how 
great the mercy of the Lord hath beene vnto them, impart- 
ing his most sweete and agreeable law. 

Chap, xxiii. — How the Divell hath laboured to iraitate atid 
counterfaite the Sacraments of the holy Gliurch. 

That which is most admirable in the hatred and presump- 
tion of Sathan is, that he hath not onely counterfaited in 
idolatry and sacrifices but also in certaine ceremonies our 
sacraments, which lesus Christ our Lord hath instituted 
and the holy Church doth vse, having especially pretended 
to imitate in some sort the Sacrament of the Communion, 
which is the most high and divine of all others, for the great 
error of Infidells which proceeded in this manor. In the 
first moneth, which in Peru they called Rayme^ and answer- 
eth to our December, they made a most solemne feast called 
Capacrayme,^ wherein they made many sacrifices and cere- 
monies, which continued many daies, during the which no 
stranger was sufi'ered to bee at the Court, which was in 
Cusco. These daies being past, they then gave libertie to 
strangers to enter, that they might be partakers of the 
feastes and sacrifices, ministring to them in this maner. 

^ Raymi was the month of June. 

2 Ccapac Raymi was the solstice of December. 


The MamacoTias of the Sunne, which were a kinde of i^^^. v. 
Nannes of the Sunne, made little loaves of the flower of 
Mays, died and mingled with the bloud of white sheepe, 
which they did sacrifice that day; then presently they com- 
manded that all strangers should enter, who set themselves 
in order; and the Priests, which were of a certaine lineage, 
discending from Liuquiyupangui,^ gave to every one a mor- 
cell of these small loaves, saying vnto them that they gave 
these peeces to the end they should be vnited and confede- 
rate with the Ynca, and that they advised them not to speake 
nor thinke any ill against the Ynca, but alwaies to beare 
him good affection, for that this peece should be a witnesse 
of their intentions and will, and if they did not as they 
ought he would discover them and be against them. They 
parried these small loaves in great platters of gold and 
silver appointed for that vse, and all did receive and eate 
these peeces, thanking the Sunne infinitely for so great a 
favour which hee had done them, speaking wordes and 
making signes of great contentment and devotion; protest- 
ing that during their lives they would neither do nor thinke 
any thing against the Sunne nor the Ynca : and with this 
condition they received this foode of the Sunne, the which 
should remaine in their bodies for a witnesse of their fidelitie 
which they observed to the Sunne and to the Ynca their 
King. This manor of divelish communicating they likewise 
vsed in the tenth moneth called Coyarayrae,^ which was Sep- 
tember, in the solemne feast which they called Cytua,^ doing 
the like ceremonies. And besides this communion (if it be 
lawfull to vse this word in so divelish a matter) which they 
imparted to all strangers that came, they did likewise send 
of these loaves to all their Guacas, sanctuaries, or idolls, of 
the whole Kealme; and at one instant they found people of 
all sides which came expresly to receive them, to whom they 

* Lloque Yupanqui was the third sovertign of the Ynca dynasty. 
2 Ccoya Rayrai, ^ Festival of Situa. 

A A 2 

Lin. V. 


said (in delivering them) that the Sunne had sent them that 
in signe that hee would have them all to worship and honour 
him, and likewise did sende them in honour of the Caciques. 
Some, perhappes, will hold this for a fable and a fiction ; 
yet is it most true that, since the Ynca Yupangi (the which 
is hee that hath made most lawes, customes, and ceremonies, 
as Numa did in Rome), this manor of communion hath con- 
tinued vntill that the Gospel of our Lord lesus Christ thrust 
out all these superstitions, giving them the right foode of 
life, which vnites their soules to God. Whoso would satisfie 
himselfe more amply let him reade the relation which the 
Licentiate Polo did write to Don leronimo de Loaysa, Arch- 
bishop of the Cittie of Kings, where he shall finde thir^ and 
many other things which he hath discovered and found out 
by his great dilligence. 

Chap. xxiv. — In what maner the Dlvell hath laboured in 

Mexico to counterfaite the feast of the holy Sacrament 

and Communion vsed in the holy Church, 

It is a thing more worthy admiration to heare speak of 
the Feast and solemnitie of the Communion which the Divel 
himselfe, the Prince of Pride, ordayned in Mexico, the 
which (although it bee somewhat long) yet shall it not 
be from the purpose to relate, as it is written by men of 
credite. The Mexicaines in the moneth of Maie made their 
principall feast to their god Vitzilipuztli, and two daies 
before this feast, the Virgins whereof I have spoken (the 
which were shut vp and secluded in the same Temple and 
were as it were religious women) did mingle a quantitie of 
the seede of beetes with rested Mays, and then they did 
mould it with honie, making an idoll of that paste in big- 
nesse like to that of wood, putting insteede of eyes graines 
of greene glasse, of blue, or white; and for teeth graines of 
Mays set forth with all the ornament and furniture that I 


have said. This being finished, all the Noblemen came and ^*^- 
brought it an exquisite and rich garment, like vnto that of 
the idol, wherewith they did attyre it. Being thus clad and 
deckt, they did set it in an azured chaire and in a litter to 
carry it on their shoulders. The morning of this feast being 
come, an houre before day all the maidens came forth at- 
tired in white with new ornaments, the which that day were 
called the Sisters of their god Yitzlipuztli, they came crowned 
with garlands of Mays rested and parched, being like vnto 
azahar or the flower of orange; and about their neckes they 
had great chaines of the same, which went bauldricke-wise 
vnder their left arme. Their cheekes were died with Ver- 
million, their armes from the elbow to the wrist were covered 
with red parrots^ feathers. And thus attyred they tooke the 
idoll on their shoulders carrjdng it into the Court, where all 
the yoong men were attyred in garmeutes of an artificiall 
red, crowned after the same manor like vnto the women. 
When as the maidens came forth with the idoll the yong 
men drew neer with much reverence, taking the litter wherein 
the idoll was vpon their shoulders, carrying it to the foote 
of the staires of the Temple, where all the people did humble 
themselves, laying earth vpon their heads, which was an 
ordinarie ceremonie which they did observe at the chiefe 
feast of their gods. This ceremony being ended, all the 
people went in procession with all the diligence and speede 
they could, going to a mountain, which was a league from 
the city of Mexico, called Chapultepec, and there they made 
sacrifices. Presently they went from thence with like dili- 
gence to go to a place neere vnto it which they called Atla- 
cuyauaya, where they made their second station; and from 
thence they went to another burgh or village a league be- 
yond Cuyoacan, from whence they parted, returning to the 
citie of Mexico^ not making any other station. They went 
in this sort above foure leagues in three or foure houres, 
calling this procession Ypayna Vitzlipuztli. Being come to 


i^iB- V. the foote of the staires they set downe the brancard or litter 
with the idoll, tying great cordes to the armes of the bran- 
carde; then, with great observance and reverence, they did 
drawe vp the Htter with the idoll in it to the top of the 
Templcj some drawing above and others helping belowe; in 
the meane time there was a great noise of fluites, trumpets^ 
cornets,, and drumraes. They did mount it in this manner, 
for that the staires of the Temple were very steepe and 
narrow, so as they could not carry vp the litter vpon their 
shoulders, while they mounted vp the idoll all the people 
stoode in the Court with much reverence and feare. Being 
mounted to the top, and that they had placed it in a little 
lodge of roses which they held readie, presently came the 
yong men, which strawed many flowers of sundrie kindes, 
wherewith they filled the temple both within and without. 
This done all the Virgins came out of their convent, bring- 
ing peeces of paste compounded of beetes and rested Mays, 
which was of the same paste whereof their idoll was made 
and compounded, and they were of the fashion of great 
bones. They delivered them to the yong men, who carried 
them vp and laide them at the idolFs feete, wherewith 
they filled the whole place that it could receive no more. 
They called these morcells of paste the flesh and bones 
of Yitzilipuztli. Having layed abroade these bones, pre- 
sently came all the Ancients of the Temple, Priests, Levites, 
and all the rest of the Ministers, according to their dig- 
nities and antiquities (for heerein there was a strict order 
amongst them) one after another, with their vailes of diverse 
colours and workes, every one according to his dignity and 
office, having garlands vpon their heads and chaines of 
flowers about their neckes; after them came their gods and 
goddesses whom they worshipt, of diverse figures, attired in 
the same livery; then putting themselves in order about 
those morsells and peeces of paste, they vsed certaine cere- 
monies with singing and daunciug. By meanes whereof 


they were blessed and consecrated for the flesh and bones ^"- ^' 
of this idoll. 

This ceremony and blessing (whereby they were taken 
for the flesh and bones of the idoll) being ended they 
honoured those peeces in the same sorte as their god. Then 
came foorth the sacrificers, who beganne the sacrifice of 
men in the manner as hath beene spoken, and that day 
they did sacrifice a greater number than at any other time, 
for that it was the most solemne feast they observed. The 
sacrifices being ended, all the yoong men and maides came 
out of the temple attired as before, and being placed in 
order and ranke, one directly against another, they daunced 
by drummes, the which sounded in praise of the feast, and 
of the idoll which they did celebrate. To which song all the 
most ancient and greatest noble men did answer, dauncing 
about them, making a great circle, as their vse is, the yoong 
men and maides remayning alwayes in the middest. All 
the citty came to this goodly spectacle, and there was a 
commaundement very strictly observed throughout all the 
land, that the day of the feast of the idoll Yitzilipuztli they 
should eate no other meate but this paste, with hony, 
whereof the idoll was made. And this should be eaten at 
the point of day, and they should drincke no water nor any 
other thing till after noone ; they held it for an ill signe, 
yea, for sacrilege to doe the contrary : but after the cere- 
monies ended, it was lawfuU for them to eate any thing. 
During the time of this ceremony they hid the water from 
their litle children, admonishing all such as had the vse of 
reason not to drinke any water ; which, if they did, the 
anger of God would come vpon them, and they should die, 
which they did observe very carefully and strictly. The 
ceremonies, dancing, and sacrifice ended, they went to vn- 
clothe themselves, and the priests and superiors of the 
temple tooke the idoll of paste, which they spoyled of all 
the ornaments it had, and made many peeces, as well of the 


^^^- ^' idoll itselfe as of the tronchons which were consecrated, 
and then they gave them to the people in manor of a com- 
munion, beginning with the greater, and continuing vnto 
the rest, both men, women, and little children, who received 
it with such teares, feare, and reverence as it was an ad- 
mirable thing, saying that they did eate the flesh and bones 
of God, wherewith they were grieved. Such as had any 
sicke folkes demaunded thereof for them, and carried it with 
erreat reverence and veneration. 

All such as did communicate were bound to give the tenth 
of this seede, whereof the idoll was made. The solemnitie 
of the idoll being ended an olde man of great authoritie 
stopt vp into a high place, and with a lowde voice preached 
their lawe and ceremonies. Who would not wonder to see 
the divell so curious to seeke to be worshipped and re- 
verenced in the same manor that lesus Christ our God hath 
appoynted and also taught, and as the Holy Church hath 
accustomed. Hereby it is plainely verified what was pro- 
pounded in the beginning, that Sathan strives all he can to 
vsurp and chalenge vnto himselfe the honor and service that 
is due to God alone, although he dooth still intermixe with 
it his cruelties and lilthinesse, being the spirite of murther 
and vncleanenesse and the father of lies. 

Chap. xxv. — Of Confessors and Confession which the Indians 


The father of lies would likewise counterfeit the sacra- 
ment of Confession, and in his idolatries seeke to be honored 
with ceremonies very like to the manor of Christians. In 
Peru they held opinion that all diseases and adversities came 
for the sinnes which they had committed, for remedy whereof 
they vsed sacrifices : moreover they confessed themselves 
verbally, almost in all provinces, and had Confessors ap- 
poynted by their superiors to that end, there were some 


sinnes reserved for the superiors. They received penaunce, 
yea, sometimes very sharpely, especially when the offender 
was a poore man, and had nothing to give his Confessor. 
This office of Confessor was likewise exercised by women. 
The manner of these confessors sorcerers, whom they call 
Ychuiri or Ychuri,-^ hath beene most generall in the pro- 
vinces of Collasuio.^ They holde opinion that it is a heinous 
sinne to conceale any thing in confession. The Ychuyri 
or confessors discovered by lottos or by the view of some 
beast hides if anything were concealed, and punished them 
with many blowes with a stone vpon the shoulders, vntill 
they had revealed all : then after they gave him penaunce, 
and did sacrifice. They doe likewise vse this confession 
when their children, wives, husbands, or their Caciques be 
sicke, or in any great exploite. And when their Ynca was 
sicke all the provinces confessed themselves, chiefly those 
of the province of Collao. The Confessors were bound to 
hold their confessions secret, but in certain cases limited. 
The sinnes that they chiefly confessed was first to kill one 
another out of warre, then to steale, to take another man's 
wife, to give poison or sorcery to doe any harme; and they 
helde it to be a grievous sinne to be forgetfull in the rever- 
ence of their Guacas, or Oratories, not to observe the feasts, 
or to speake ill of the Ynca and to disobey him. They ac- 
cused not themselves of any secret actes and sinnes. But, 
according to the report of some Priests, after the Christians 
came into that countrey, they accused themselves of their 
thoughts. The Ynca confessed himselfe to no man, but 
onely to the Sunne, that hee might tell them to Virachoca, 
and that he might forgive them. After the Ynca had been 
confessed, hee made a certaine bath to cleanse himselfe in a 
running river, saying these words : '^ I have told my sinnes 
to the Sunne, receive them thou river, and carry them to 

* Ychurichuc is a confessor, according to Arriaga, from Ychurini^ I 
confess. - CoUa-suyu : the southern division of the Ynca Empire. 

Lib. v. 


Lib. v. i^Ijq qq.^^ where they may never appeare more.'' Others that 
confessed vsed likewise these baths^ with certaine cere- 
monies very like to those the Moores vse at this day, which 
they call Guadoy, and the Indians call them Opacuna} When 
it chaunced that any man's children died he was held for a 
great sinner, saying that it was for his sinnes that the sonne 
died before the father ; and, therefore, those to whom this 
had chanced, after they were confessed, they were bath'd in 
. this bath called Ojpacunaj as is saide before. Then some 
deformed Indian, crookebackt and counterfet by nature, 
came to whippe them with certaine nettles. If the Sorcerers 
or Inchaunters by their lots and divinations affirmed that 
any sicke body should die, the sicke man makes no difficulty 
to kill his owne sonne, though he had no other, hoping by 
that meanes to escape death, saying that in his place he 
offered his sonne in sacrifice. And this crueltie hath beene 
practised in some places, even since the Christians came 
into that countrey. In trueth it is strange that this cus- 
tome of confessing their secret sinnes hath continued so 
long amongest them, and to doe so strict penances, as to 
fast, to give apparell, gold, and silver, to remaine in the 
mountaines, and to receive many stripes vpon the shoulders. 
Our men say, that in the province of Chucuito, even at this 
day they meete with this plague of Confessors or Ychuris, 
whereas many sicke persons repaire vnto them ; but now, 
by the grace of God, this people beginnes to see cleerely the 
effect and great benefite of our confession, wherevnto they 
come with great devotion. And partely this former custome 
hath been suffered by the providence of the Lord, that con- 
fession might not seeme tedious vnto them. 

By this meanes the Lord is wholy glorified, and the Divell 
(who is a deceiver) deceived. And for that it concerneth 
this matter I will reporte the manner of a strange confes- 
sion the Divell hath invented at lappon, as appeares by a 
* Upd-cniiciy bcitlis, from Upaiii^ I wash. 


letter that came from thence, which saith thus : " There are ^^^- "^• 
in Ocaca very grejit and high and stiep rockes, which have 
prickes or poynts on them, above two hundred fadome high. 
Amongest these rockes there is one of these pikes or poyntes 
so terribly high that when the Xamabusis (which be pil- 
grimes) doe but looke vp vnto it, they tremble and their 
haire stares, so fearefull and horrible is the place. Ypon 
the toppe of this poynt there is a great rod of yron of three 
fadome long, placed there by a strange devise ; at the end 
of this rodde is a ballance tied, whereof the scales are so 
bigge as a man may sit in one of them. And the Goquis 
(which be divells in human shape) commaund these pilgrims 
to enter therein one after another, not leaving one of them; 
then, with an engine or instrument which mooveth by meanes 
of a wheele, they make this rodde of yron whereon the bal- 
lance is hanged to hang in the aire, one of these Xamabuzia 
being set in one of the scales of the ballaunce. And as that 
wherein the man is sette hath no counterpoise on the other 
side, it presently hangeth downe, and the other riseth vntill 
it meetes with and toucheth the rodde; then the Goquis 
telleth them from the rocke that they must confesse them- 
selves of all the sinnes they have committed to their remem- 
brance, and that with a lowde voyce to th'end that all the 
reste may heare him. Then presently hee beginneth to 
confesse, whilest some of the standers by do laugh at the 
sinnes they doe heare, and others sigh ; and at every sinne 
they confesse the other scale of the ballance falles a little, 
vntill that having tolde all his sinnes it remaines equall with 
the other, wherein the sorrowfull penitent sits ; then the 
Goquis turnes the wheele and drawes the rodde and bal- 
lance vnto him, and the Pilgrime comes foorth ; then enters 
another, vntill all have passed. A lapponois reported this 
after hee was christned, saying that he had beene in this 
pilgrimage, and entred the ballance seaven times, where he 
had confessed himselfe publikely. He saide, moreover, that 

Lib. v. 


if anie one did conceale any sinne the empty scale yeelded 
not ; and if liee grew obstinate after instance made to con- 
fesse himselfej refusing to open all his sinnes^ the Goquis 
cast him downe from the toppe, where in an instant he is 
broken into a thousand peeces. Yet this Christian, who was 
called John, told vs that commonly the feare and terrour of 
this place is so great to all such as enter therein, and the 
danger they see with their eies to fall out of the ballance 
and to be broken in peeces, that seldome there is any one 
but discovers all his sins. This place is called by another 
name Sangenotocoro, that is to say, the place of Confession; 
wee see plain ely by this discourse how the Divell hath pre- 
tended to vsurp vnto himselfe the service of God, making 
confession of sinnes (which the Lord hath appoynted for the 
remedy of man) a divellish superstition, to their great losse 
and perdition. He hath doone no lesse to the Heathen of 
lappon than to those of the provinces of Collao in Peru. 

Chap. xxvi. — Of the ahominahle unction ivMch the Mexicaine 
priestes and other Nations vsedj and of their witchcraft es. 

God appoynted in the auntient Lawe the manner how 
they should consecrate Aaron^s person and the other Priests, 
and in the Lawe of the Gospel wee have likewise the holy 
creame and vnction which they vse when they consecrate 
the Priestes of Christ. There was likewise in the auntient 
Lawe a sweete composition, which God defend should be 
employed in anie other thing then in the divine service. 
The Divel hath sought to counterfet all these things after 
his manner as hee hath accustomed, having to this end in- 
vented things so fowle and filthie, whereby they discover 
wel who is the Author. The priests of the idolles in Mexico 
were annoynted in this sort, they annointed the body from 
the foote to the head, and all the haire likewise, which hung 


like tresses, or a horse mane, for that they applyed this i^i^. v. 
vnction wet and moyst. Their haire grew so as in time it 
hung downe to their hamraes, so heavily that it was trouble- 
some for them to beare it, for they did never cut it untill 
they died, or that they were dispensed with for their great 
age, or being employed in governments or some honorable 
charge in the commonwealth. They carried their haire in 
tresses, of sixe fingers breadth, which they died blacke with 
the fume of sapine, or firre trees, or rosine ; for in all Anti- 
quitie it hath bin an offring they made vnto their idolls, and 
for this cause it was much esteemed and reverenced. They 
were alwayes died with this tincture from the foote to the 
head, so as they were like vnto shining Negroes, and that 
was their ordinary vnction; yet, whenas they went to sacri- 
fice and give incense in the mountaines, or on the tops 
thereof, or in any darke and obscure caves where their 
idolles were, they vsed an other kinde of vnction very differ- 
ent, doing certaine ceremonies to take away feare, and to 
give them courage. This vnction was made with diverse 
little venomous beastes, as spiders, scorpions, palmers, sala- 
manders, and vipers, the which the boyes in the Colledges 
tooke and gathered together, wherein they were so expert, 
as they were alwayes furnished when the Priestes called for 
them. The chiefe care of these boj^es was to hunt after these 
beasts ; if they went any other way and by chaunce met 
with any of these beasts they stayed to take them, with as 
great paine as if their lives depended thereon. By the rea- 
son whereof the Indians commonly feared not these venom- 
ous beasts, making no more accompt than if they were not 
so, having beene all bred in this exercise. To make an oint- 
ment of these beastes they tooke them all together, and 
burnt them vpon the harth of the Temple, which was before 
the Altare, vntill they were consumed to ashes ; then did 
they put them in morters with much Tobacco or hetum 
(being an hearbe that Nation vseth much to benumme the 

Lib. V, 


flesh that they may not feele their travell), with the which 
they mingle the ashes, making them loose their force; they 
did likewise mingle with these ashes scorpions, spiders, and 
palmers alive, mingling all together; then did they put to 
it a certaine seede being grownd, which they call Ololuchqui, 
whereof the Indians make a drinke to see visions, for that 
the vertue of this hearbe is to deprive man of sence. They 
did likewise grinde with these ashes blacke and hairie 
wormes, whose haire only is venomous, all which they 
mingled together with blacke, or the fume of rosine, putting 
it in small pots which they set before their god, saying it 
was his meate: and, therefore, they called it a divine meate. 
By means of this oyntment they became witches, and did 
see and speake with the Divell. The priestes being slub- 
bered with this oyntment lost all feare, putting on a spirit 
of cruelty. By reason whereof they did very boldely kill 
men in their sacrifices, going all alone in the night to the 
mountaines and into obscure caves, contemning all wilde 
beasts, and holding it for certayne and approved that both 
lions, tigres, serpents, and other furious beasts which breede 
in the mountaines and forrests fled from them by the vertue 
of this hetuin of their god. 

And in trueth, though this hetum had no power to make 
them flie, yet was the Divelle's picture sufficient whereinto 
they were transformed. This hetum did also serve to cure 
the sicke and for children, and therefore all called it the 
Divine Physicke ; and so they came from all partes to the 
superiors and priests, as to their saviors, that they might 
apply this divine physicke, wherewith they anoynted those 
parts that were grieved. They said that they felt heereby 
a notable ease, which might be, for that Tobacco and Olo- 
luchqui have this propertie of themselves to benumme the 
flesh, being applied in manner of an emplaister, which must 
be by a stronger reason being mingled with poysons ; and 
for that it did appease and benuuime the paine, they helde 


it for an effect of health, and a divine virtue. And there- ^^^- '^• 
fore ranne they to these priests as to holy men, who kept 
the blind and ignorant in this error, perswading them what 
they pleased, and making them runne after their inventions 
and divellish ceremonies, their authority being such as their 
wordes were sufficient to induce beliefe as an article of their 
faith. And thus made they a thousand superstitions amoug 
the vulgar people, in their manor of offering incense, in cut- 
ing their haire, tying small flowers about their necks, and 
strings with small bones of snakes, commaunding them to 
bathe at a certain time; and that they should watch all night 
at the harth lest the fire should die; that they should eate 
no other breade but that which had bin offered to their gods, 
that they should vpon any occasion repaire vnto their witches, 
who with certaine graines tolde fortunes, and divined, look- 
ing into keelers and pailes full of water. The sorcerers and 
ministers of the divell vsed much to besmere themselves. 
There were an infinite number of these witches, divines, en- 
chanters, and other false prophets. There remaines yet at 
this day of this infection, althogh they be secret, not daring 
publikely to exercise their sacrileges, divelish ceremonies, 
and superstitions, but their abuses and wickednes are dis- 
covered more at large and particularly in the confessions 
made by the Prelates of Peru. 

There is a kinde of sorcerers amongst the Indians allowed 
by the Kings Yncas, which are, as it were, sooth-saiers, they 
take vpon them what forme and figure they please, flying 
farre through the aire in a short time, beholding all that was 
done. They talke with the Divell, who answereth them in 
certaine stones or other things which they reverence much. 
They serve as coniurers, to tell what hath passed in the 
farthest partes, before any newes can come. As it hath 
chanced since the Spaniardes arrived there, that in the dis- 
tance of two or three hundred leagues, they have knowne 
the mutinies, battailes, rebellions, and deaths, both of tyrants, 

Lib. v. 


and those of the King's partie, and of private men, the which 
have beene knowne the same day they chanced^ or the day 
after, a thing impossible by the course of nature. To worke 
this divination, they shut themselves into a house, and be- 
came drunk vntil they lost their sences, a day after they an- 
swered to that which was demanded. Some aflSrme they 
vse certaine vnctions. The Indians say that the old women 
do commonly vse this office of witchcraft, and specially those 
of one Province, which they call Coaillo, and of another 
towne called Manchay, and of the Province of Huarochiri. 
They likewise shew what is become of things stoloe and 
lost. There are of these kindes of Sorcerers in all partes, 
to whom commonly doe come the Anaconas,-^ and Chinas, 
which serve the Spaniardes, and when they have lost any 
thing of their masters, or when they desire to know the 
successe of things past or to come, as when they goe to the 
Spaniardes citties for their private affaires, or for the pub- 
like, they demaund if their voyage shall be prosperous, if 
they shall be sicke, if they shall die, or return safe, if they 
shall obtaine that which they pretend : and the witches or 
coniurers answer, yea, or no, having first spoken with the 
Divell, in an obscure place ; so as these Anaconas do well 
heare the sound of the voyce, but they see not to whom 
these coniurers speake, neither do they vnderstand what 
they say. They make a thousand ceremonies and sacrifices 
to this effect, with the which they mocke the Divell and grow 
exceeding drunke, for the doing whereof, the}^ particularly 
vse an hearbe called Yillca,- the iuyce whereof they mingle 
with their Chicha, or take it in some other sort, whereby we 
may see how miserable they are, that have for their masters, 
the ministers of him whose office is to deceive. It is mani- 
fest that nothing doth so much let the Indians from receiv- 
ing the faith of the holy Gospel, and to persever therein, as 

» Yana-cunas, or Indians held to domestic service. See Balboa, p. 
120. '^ A tree, the fruit of which is a purgative. — Moasi. 


the conference with these witches, whereof there have bin, 
and are still, great numbers, although by the grace of the 
Lord, and diligence of the Prelates and Priestes, they de- 
crease, and are not so hurtefull. Some of them have beene 
converted and preached publikely, discovering and blaming 
themselves, their errors and deceites, and manifesting their 
devises and lies, whereof wee have scene great effects ; as 
also we vnderstand by letters from Jappon, that the like 
hath arrived in those parts ; all to the glory and honour of 
our Lord God. 

Lib v. 

Chap. xxvn. — Of other Ceremonies and Gastomes of {he 
Indians which are like vnto ours. 

The Indians had an infinite number of other ceremonies 
and customes which resembled to the ancient law of Moses, 
and some to those which the Moores vse, and some ap- 
proached neere to the law of the Gospel, as their bathes or 
Opacuna, as they call them ; they did wash themselves in 
water, to dense them from their sins. The Mexicaines had 
also amongst them a kind of baptisme, the which they did 
with ceremony, cutting the eares and members of yong 
children new borne, counterfaiting in some sort the circum^ 
cision of the lewes. This ceremony was done principally 
to the sonnes of Kings and Noblemen; presently vpon their 
birth the priestes did wash them, and did put a little sword 
in the right hand, and in the left a target. And to the 
children of the vulgar sort they put the markes of their 
offices, and to their daughters instruments to spinne, knit, 
and labour. This ceremony continued four dales, being 
made before some idoll. They contracted marriage after 
their maner, whereof the Licentiate Polo hath written a 
whole Treatise, and I will speake somewhat thereon heere- 
after. In otlier things their customes and ceremonies have 

B £ 


Ltd. V, some show of reason. The Mexicaines were married by the 
handes of their priestes in this sort. The Bridegroome and 
the Bride stood together before the priest, who tooke them 
by the hands asking them if they would marrie, then having 
vnderstood their willes, hee tooke a corner of the vaile where- 
with the woman had her head covered, and a corner of the 
mans gowne, the which he tied together on a knot, and so 
led them thus tied to the Bridegroomes house, where there 
was a harth kindled, and then he caused the wife to go 
seven times about the harth, and so the married couple sate 
downe together, and thus was the marriage contracted. The 
Mexicaines were very iealous of the integritie of their 
wives ; so as if they found they were not as they ought to 
be (the which they knew eyther by signes or dishonest 
wordes), they presently gave notice thereof to their fathers 
and kinsfolkes of their wives, to their great shame and dis- 
honor, for that they had not kept good guarde over them. 
But they did much honour and respect such as lived chastely, 
making them great banquttes, and giving great presentes 
both to her and to her kinsfolkes. For this occasion they 
made great offerings to their gods, and a solemne banket in 
the house of the wife, and another in the husbands. When 
they went to house they made an inventory of all the man 
and wife brought together, of provisions for the house, of 
land, of iewells and ornaments, which inventories every 
father kept, for if it chanced they made any devorce (as it 
was common amongest them when they agree not), they 
divided their goods according to the portion that every one 
brought, every one having libertie in such a case to marry 
whome they pleased ; and they gave the daughters to the 
wife, and the sonnes to the husband. t was defended vpon 
paine of death, not to marry againe together, the which 
they observed very strictly. And although it seeme that 
many of their ceremonies agree with ours, yet differ they 
much for the great abomination they mingle therewithal!. 


It is common and general! to have vsually one of these ^^^- ^• 
three things, either cruelty, filthines, or slouth ; for all their 
ceremonies were cruell and hurtefull, as to kill men and to 
spill blood, are filthy and beastly, as to eate and drinke to 
the name of their IdoUs, and also to pisse in the honour of 
them, cai'rying them vpon their shoulders, to annoint and 
besmeere themselves filthily, and to do a thousand sortes of 
villanies, which were at the least, vaine_, ridiculous, and idle, 
and more like the actions of children then of men. The 
cause thereof is the very condition of this wicked spirit, 
whose intention is alwaies to do ill, provoking men still 
to murthers and filthines, or at the least to vanities and 
fruitelesse actions, the which every man may well know, if 
he duly consider the behaviour and actions of the Divell, 
towardes those he sets to deceive. For in all his illusions 
we finde a mixture of these three, or at least of one of 
them. The Indians themselves (since they came to the 
knowledge of our faith) laugh and mocke at these fooleries 
and toyes, in the which their gods held them busied, whom 
they served more for feare, least they should hurte them, in 
not obeying them in all things, then for any love they bare 
them. Although some, yea, very many lived, abused and 
deceived, with the vaine hope of temporall goods, for of the 
eternall they had no knowledge. And whereas the tempo- 
rall power was greatest, there superstition hath most in- 
creased, as we see in the Realmes of Mexico and Cusco, 
where it is incredible to see the number of idolls they had; 
for within the citty of Mexico there were above three 
hundred. Mango Ynca Yupangui, amongst the Kings of 
Cusco, was hee that most augmented the service of their 
idolls, inventing a thousand kindes of sacrifices, feasts, and 
ceremonies. The like did King Iscoalt^ in Mexico, who was 
the fourth king. There was also a great number of super- 

1 Izcohuatl, He built the famous temple of Huitzilopochtli, the first 
god of the Mexicans. 

B B 2 


^^^- "^- stitions and sacrifices in other Nations of tlie Indians, as in 
the Province of Guatiraala, at the Hands in the new King- 
dome, in the Province of Chile, and others that were like 
Commonwealthes and Comminalties. But it was nothing in 
respect of Mexico and Cusco, where Sathan was as in 
Rome, or in his Jerusalem, vntill he was cast out against 
his will, and the holy Crosse planted in his place, and the 
Kingdome of Christ our God occupied, the which the 
tyrant did vsurpe. 

Chap, xxviii. — Of some Feasts celebrated by them of Gasco, 
and hoiv the Divell would imitate the mysterie of 
the holy Trinitie, 

To conclude that which concernes Religion, there restes 
something to speake of the feasts and solemnities which the 
Indians did celebrate, the which (for that they are divers 
and many) cannot be all specified. The Yncas, Lords of 
Peru, had two kindes of feasts, some were ordinarie, which 
fell out in certaine moneths of the yeere ; and others extra- 
ordinary, which were for certaine causes of importance, as 
when they did crowne a new King, when they beganne 
some warre of importance, when they had any great needo 
of water or drought, or other like things. For the ordinary 
feasts, we must vnderstand, that every moneth of the yeare 
they made feasts, and divers sacrifices, and although all of 
them had this alike, that they offered a hundred sheepe, yet 
in colour and in forme they are very divers. In the first 
moneth, which they call Ray me, which is the moneth of 
December, they made their first feast, which was the prin- 
cipall of all others, and for that cause they called it Capac- 
rayme, which is to say, a rich and principall feast. In this 
feast they offered a great number of sheepe and lambs in 
sacrifi'ce, and they burnt them with sweete wood, tlien they 


caused gold and silver to be brought vpon certaine sheepe, 
setting vppon them three Images of the Sun, and three of 
the thunder, the father, the sonne, and the brother. In 
these feasts they dedicated the Yncas children, putting the 
Guaras or ensignes vpon them, and they pierced their eares; 
then some olde man did whip them with slings, and an- 
noynted their faces with blood, all in signe that they should 
be true Knights to the Ynca. No stranger might remaine 
in Cusco during this moneth, and this feast, but at the end 
thereof they entred, and they gave vnto them peeces of the 
paste of mays with the blood of the sacrifice, which they 
did eate in signe of confederation with the Ynca, as hath 
bin said before. It is strange that the Divell after his 
manner hath brought a trinitie into idolatry, for the three 
images of the Sunne called Apomti, Churunti, and Inti- 
quaoqui,^ which signifieth father and lord Sunne, the sonne 
Sunne, and the brother Sunne. In the like manor they 
named the three Images of Chuquilla, which is the God that 
rules in the region of the aire, where it thunders, raines, 
and snows. I remember that, being in Chuquisaca, an honour- 
able priest shewed me an information, which I had long in 
my handes, where it was prooved that there was a certaine 
Huaca or Oratory, whereas the Indians did worship an idoll 
called Tangatanga, which they saide was one in three, and 
three in one. And as this Priest stood amazed thereat, I 
saide that the Divell by his infernall and obstinate pride 
(whereby he alwayes pretendes to make himselfe God) did 
steale all that he could from the trueth, to imploy it in his 
lyings and deceits. Comming then to the feast of the 
second moneth, which they called Camay,^ besides the sacri- 
fices which they made, they did cast the ashes into the river, 
following five or six leagues after, praying it to carry them 

' Apn-7jnti^ Chief Sun ; Cliuri-ynti^ Son-Sun : Ynti-hucmque ^ Brother- 

' Canay-quilla. The month from 8th December to 9th January. 

Lib. v. 



Lib. v. \j^^q f}^Q gpj^^ fQj, t];,at the Yirochoca sLould there receive this 
present. In the third, fourth^ and fift moneth, they offered 
a hundred blacke sheepe, speckled, and grey, with many 
other things, which I omitte for being too tedious. The 
sixt moneth is called Hatimcuzqui Aymuray, which answer- 
eth to Maie, in the which they sacrificed a hundred sheepe 
more, of all colours; in this moon and moneth, which is 
when they bring maize from the fieldes into the house, they 
made a feast, which is yet very vsuall among the Indians, 
and they doe call it Aymuray.^ 

This feast is made coraming from the Chacra or farme 
vnto the house, saying certaine songG, and praying that the 
Mays may long continue, the which they call Mamacora, 
They take a certaine portion of the most fruitefull of the 
Mays that growes in their farmes, the which they put in a 
certaine granary which they doe call Firua, with certaine 
ceremonies, watching three nightes ; they put this Mays in 
the richest garments they have, and beeing thus wrapped 
and dressed, they worship this Firna, and hold it in great 
veneration, saying it is the mother of the mays of their 
inheritances, and that by this means the mays augments 
and is preserved. In this moneth they make a particular 
sacrifice, and the witches demaund of this Pima, if it hath 
strength sufficient to continue vntill the next yeare; and if 
it answers no, then they carry this Maj^s to the farme to 
burne, whence they brought it^ according to every man^s 
power; then make they another Pima, with the same cere- 
monies, saying that they renue it, to the end the feede of 
Mays may not perish, and if it answers that it hath force 
sufficient to last longer they leave it vntill the next yeare. 
This foolish vanitie continueth to this day, and it is very 
common amongest the Indians to have these Piruas, and to 
make the feast o^ Aymuray, The seaventh moneth answer- 
eth to lune, and is axWed Aiicaycuzqid Intwaymd ;^ in it they 
* Aymuray, from the middle of May, ^ Yndp Raymi. 


made the feast that is called InUraymij in the which they ^"- "^• 
sacrificed a hundred sheepe called Guanacos, and saide it 
was the feast of the Sunne. In this moneth they made 
many Images of Quinua^ wood carved, all attired with rich 
garraentes, and they made their dancings which they do 
call Gayo, At this feast they cast flowers in the high wayes, 
and thither the Indians came painted, and their noblemen 
had small plates of golde vpon their beards, and all did sing; 
wee must vnderstand that this feast falleth almost at the 
same time whenas the Christians observe the solempnitie of 
the holy Sacrament, which doth resemble it in some sort, 
as in dauncing, singing, and representations. And for this 
cause there hath beene, and is yet among the Indians, 
which celebrated a feast somewhat like to ours of the holy 
Sacrament, many superstitions in celebrating this ancient 
feast of Intiraymi. The eight month is called Chahua 
Huarquij^ in the which they did burne a hundred sheepe 
more, all grey, of the colour of Yiscacha, according to the 
former order, which month doth answer to our luly. The 
ninth moneth was called Yapaquis,^ in the which they burnt 
an hundred sheepe more, of a chesnut colour; and they do 
likewise kill and burne a thousand Cuyes,* to the end the 
frost, the ayre, the water, nor the sunne should not hurt 
their farmes: and this moneth doth answer vnto August. 
The tenth moneth was called Goyarami,^ in the which they 
burnt a hundred white sheepe that had fleeces. In this 
month, which answereth to September, they made the feast 
called Situa in this manner: they assembled together the 
first day of the moone before the rising thereof, and in 
seeing it they cryed aloude, carrying torches in their handes 
and saying, '^Let all harme goe away,'' striking one an 

1 Quennar (Polyhpis). 

2 The next month was Anta-asitua according to other authors. 

^ Ccapac-asitua. ■* Guinea pigs. 

* Umu-Raymi of Molina and Velasco. 


Lib. v. other witli their torches. They that did this were called 
Panconcos,^ which being dooiie, they went to the common 
bath, to the rivers and fountaines, and every one to his own 
bath, setting themselves to drink foure dayes together. In 
this moneth the Mama-cunas of the sunne made a great 
number of small loaves with the blood of the sacrifices, and 
gave a peece to every stranger; yea, they sent to every 
Huaca throughout the realme, and to many Curacas, in 
signe of confederation and loyaltie to the Sunne and the 
Ynca, as hath bin said. 

The bathes, drunkennesse, and some relickes of this feast 
Situa, remaine even vnto this day, in some places, with the 
ceremonies a little different, but yet very secretly, for that 
these chiefe and principall feasts have ceased. The eleventh 
moneth, Homaraymi PuncJiaiquis ,^ wherein they sacrificed a 
hundred sheepe more. And if they wanted water, to pro- 
cure raine they set a black sheepe tied in the middest of a 
plaine, powring mucli chica about it, and giving it nothing 
to eate vntill it rained, which is practised at this day in 
many places in the time of our October. The twelfth and 
last month was called Ayamarcaj wherein they did likewise 
sacrifice a hundred sheepe, and made the feast called Bay- 
micantara Rayquis. In this moneth, which aunswered to 
our November, they prepared what was necessary for the 
children that should be made novices the moneth following; 
the children with the old men made a certaine shew, with 
rounds and turnings, and this feast was called Ituraynd, 
which commonly they make when it raines too much, or too 
little, or when there is a plague. Among the extraordinary 
feasts, which were very many, the most famous was that 
which they called Ytu. This feast Ytu hath no prefixed 
time nor season, but in time of necessitie. To prepare 
themselves thereunto, all the people fasted two dayes, during 

' Panciincif, a torch. See G. de la Vegn^ ii, p. 232. 
' Not given by other authorities. 


the which they did neyther company with their wives, nor 
eate anie meate with salt or garlicke, nor drinke any Chicha. 
All did assemble together in one place, where no straunger 
was admitted, nor any beast ; they had garments and orna- 
ments, which served onely for this feast. They marched 
very quietly in procession, their heades covered with their 
vailes, sounding of drummes, without speaking one to 
another. This continued a day and a night ; then the day 
following they daunced and made good cheere for two 
dayes and two nights together, saying that their prayer was 
accepted. And although that this feast is not vsed at this 
day, with all this antient ceremony, yet commonly they 
make another which is verie like, which they call Ayma, 
with garmentes that serve onely to that end ; and they make 
this kind of procession with their Drummes, having fasted 
before, then after they make good cheere, which they vsually 
doe in their vrgent necessities. And although the Indians 
forbeare to sacrifice beasts, or other things publikely, which 
cannot be hidden from the Spaniardes, yet doe they still vse 
many ceremonies that have their beginnings from these 
feasts and auntient superstitions ; for, at this day, they do 
covertly make this feast of Ytu, at the dances of the feast 
of the Sacrament, in making the daunces of Llama-llama j 
and of Guacon, and of others, according to their auntient 
ceremonies, wherevnto we ought to take good regarde. 
They have made more large Discourses of that which con- 
cerueth this matter, for the necessary observation of the 
abuses and superstitions the Indians had in the time of 
their gentility, to the end the Priestes and Curates may the 
better take heede. Let this suffice now to have treated of 
the exercise wherewith the divell held those superstitious 
nations occupied to the end that against his will wee may 
see the difference there is betwixt light and darknes, betwixt 
the trueth of Christ and the lies of the Gentiles, although 
the ennemy of God and man hath laboured with all his 
devises to couuterfet those things which are of God. 

Lib. v. 


Lib. v. 

Chap. xxix. — Of ihe feast of luhilee which the Mexicaines 


The Mexicaines have beene no less curious in their feasts 
and solemnities, which were of small charge, but of great 
effusion of man's blood. Wee have before spoken of the 
principall feast of Vitzilipuztli, after the which the feast of 
Tezcatlipuca was most solempnized. This feast fell in 
Maie, and in their Kalendar they called it Tozcoalt ; it fell 
every foure yeeres with the feast of Penaunce, where there 
was given full indulgence and remission of sinnes. In 
this day they did sacrifice a captive which resembled the 
idoll Tezcatlipuca, it was the nineteenth day of Maie ; upon 
the even of this feast the Noblemen came to the temple, 
bringing a new garment like vnto that of the idoll, the 
which the priest put vpon him, having first taken oS" his other 
garments, which they kept with as much or more reverence 
than we doe our ornaments. There were in the coffers of 
the idoll many ornaments, iewelles, eareings, and other 
riches, as bracelets and pretious feathers, which served to 
no other vse but to be there, and was worshipped as their 
god it solfe. Besides the garment wherewith they wor- 
shipped the idoll that day, they put vpon him certaine 
ensignes of feathers, with fannes, shadowes, and other 
things; being thus attired and furnished, they drew the 
curtaine or vaile from before the doore, to the ende he 
might be seene of all men ; then came forth one of the 
chiefe of the temple, attired like to the idoll, carrying 
flowers in his hand, and a flute of earth, having a very 
sharpe sound, and turning towards the east, he sounded 
it, and then looking to the west, north, and south, he did 
the like. And after he had thus sounded towards the foure 
parts of the world (showing that both they that were -pre- 
sent and absent did heare him) hee put his finger into the 


aire^ and then gathered vp earth, which he put in his i^"- v. 
mouth, and did eate it in signe of adoration. The Hke did 
all they that were present, and, weeping, they fell flat to 
the ground, invocating the darknesse of the night, and the 
windes, intreating them not to leave them, nor to forget 
them, or else to take away their lives, and free them from 
the labours they indured therein. Theeves, adulterers, and 
murtherers, and all others offenders, had great feare and 
heaviness whilest this flute sounded, so as some could not 
dissemble nor hide their offences. By this meanes they 
all demanded no other thing of their god, but to have 
their offences concealed, powring foorth many teares, with 
great repentaunce and sorrow, offering great store of in- 
cense to appease their gods. The couragious and valiant 
men, and all the olde souldiers that followed the Arte of 
Warre hearing this flute, demaunded with great devotion 
of God the Creator, of the Lorde for whome wee live, of the 
sunne, and of other their gods, that they would give them 
victorie against their ennemies, and strength to take many 
captives, therewith to honour their sacrifices. This cere- 
monie was doone ten dayes before the feast; During which 
tenne dayes the Priest did sound this flute, to the end that 
all might do this worship in eating of earth, and demaund 
of their idol what they pleased: they every day made their 
praiers, with their eyes lift vp to heaven, and with sighs 
and groanings, as men that were grieved for their sinnes 
and offences. Although this contrition was onelie for feare 
of the corporal punishment that was given them, and not 
for any feare of the eternall, for they certain ely beleeved there 
was no such severe punishment in the other life. 

And, therefore, they offered themselves voluntarily to 
death, holding opinion that it is to all men an assured rest. 
The first day of the feast of this idoll Tezcatlipuca being 
come, all they of the Citty^ssembled together in a court to 
celebrate likewise the feast of the Kalender, whereof wee 


^^"- ^- have already spoken^ wliicli v^^as called Toxcoalt, which 
signifies a drie thing ; w^hich feast was not made to any 
other end, but to demaund rain, in the same manner that 
we solemnise the Rogations; and this feast was alwayes in 
Maie, which is the time that they have most neede of raine 
in those countries. They beganne to celebrate it the ninth 
of Maie, ending the nineteenth. The last day of the feast 
the Priestes drew foorth a litter well furnished with curtins 
and pendants of diverse fashions. This litter had so many 
arrnes to holde by as there were ministers to carry it. All 
which came foorth besmeered with black and long haire, 
halfe in tresses with white strings, and attyred in the livery 
of the idoll. Upon this litter they set the personage of the 
idoU appoynted for this feast, which they called the resem- 
blance of their God Tezcalipuca, and taking it upon their 
shoulders they broght it openly to the foote of the stairs; 
then came forth the yong men and maidens of the Temple, 
carrying a great cord wreathed of chaines of roasted mays, 
with the which they invironed the Litter, putting a chaine 
of the same about the idolles necke, and a garland vppon 
his head. They called the cord Toxcalt, signifying the 
drought and barrennesse of the time. The yoong men 
came wrapped in redde curtines, w^ith garlands and chains 
of roasted mays. The maides were clothed in new garments, 
wearing chaines about their neckes of roasted mays; and 
vpon their heads myters made of rods covered with this 
mays, they had their feete covered with feathers, and 
their armes and cheekes painted. They brought much 
of this roasted mays, and the chiefe men put it vpon their 
heads, and about their neckes, taking flowers in their handes. 
The idoll being placed in his litter, they strewed round about 
a great quantitie of the bough es of Manguey, the leaves 
whereof are large and pricking. 

This litter being set vpon the religious mens shoulders, 
they carryed it in procession within the circuite of the Court, 


two Priests marcliing before witli censors, giving often ^^^- ^• 
incense to the idol, and every time they gave incense 
they lifted vp their armes as high as they could to the 
idoll, and to the Sunne, saying, that they lifted vp their 
praiers to heaven, even as the smoke ascended on high. 
Then all the people in the Court turned round to the place 
whither the idoll went, every one carrying in his hand new 
cords of the threed of manguey, a fadome long, with a 
knotte at the end, and with them they whipped themselves 
vppon the shoulders; even as they doe heere vppon holy 
Thurseday. All the walles of the Court and battlements 
were full of boughs and flowers, so fresh and pleasaunt, as 
it did give a great contentment. This procession being 
ended, they brought the idoll to his vsual place of abode, 
then came a great multitude of people with flowres, dressed 
in diverse sortes, wherewith they filled the temple and all 
the court, so as it seemed the ornament of an Oratory. All 
this was putte in order by the priests, the yoong men ad- 
ministring these things vnto them from without. The 
chappell or chamber where the idoll remayned was all this 
day open without any vaile. 

This done, every one came and offered curtines, and pen- 
dants of sendal, precious stones, iewells, insence, sweete 
wood, grapes, or eares of Mays, quailes : and, finally, all they 
were accustomed to offer in such solemnities. Whenas they 
offered quailes, (which was the poore mans offering,) they 
used this ceremonie, they delivered them to the priestes, 
who taking them, pulled off their heads, and caste them at 
the foote of the Altare, where they lost their bloud, and so 
they did of all other things which were offered. Every one 
did offer meate and fruite according to their power, the 
which was laid at the foote of the altar, and the Ministers 
gathered them vp, and carried them to their chambers. This 
solemne offering done, the people went to dinner, every one 
to his village or house, leaving the feast suspended vntil 

Lib. v. 


after dinner. In the meanefcirae, the yong men and maidens 
of the temple, with their ornaments, were busied to servo 
the idoll, with all that was appointed for him to eate : which 
meate was prepared by other women, who had made a vow 
that day to serve the idoll. And, therefore, such as had 
made this vow, came by the point of day, offering them- 
selves to the Deputies of the Temple, that they might com- 
mand them what they would have done, the which they did 
carefully performe. They did prepare such varietie of 
meates, as it was admirable. This meate being ready, and 
the hour of dinner come, all these virgins went out of the 
Temple in procession, every one carrying a little basket 
of bread in her hand, and in the other, a dish of these 
meates ; before them marched an old man, like to a steward, 
with a pleasant habite, he was clothed in a white surples 
downe to the calves of his legges ; vpon a doublet with- 
out sleeves of red leather, like to a iacket, he carried wings 
insteede of sleeves, from the which hung broade ribbands, 
at the which did hang a small calibash or pumpion, which 
was covered with flowers, by little holes that were made in 
it, and within it were many superstitious things. This old 
man, thus attyred, marched very humbly and heavily before 
the preparation, with his head declining : and comming neere 
the foote of the staires, he made a great obeisance and re- 
verence. Then going on the one side, the virgins drew 
neere with the meate, presenting it in order one after another, 
with great reverence. This service presented, the old man 
returned as before, leading the virgins into their convent. 
This done, the yong men and ministers of the Temple came 
forth and gathered vp this meate, the which they carried to 
the chambers of the chiefe Priests of the Temple, who had 
fasted five daies, eating onely once a day, and they had also 
abstained from their wives, not once going out of the Temple 
in these five daies. During the which, they did whippe them- 
selves rigorously with cordes, they did eate of this divine 


meate (for so they called it), what they could, neither was it ^^°- "^• 
law full for any other to eate thereof. All the people having 
dined, they assembled againe in the court to see the ende of 
the feast, whither they brought a captive, which by the 
space of a whole yeare, had represented the idoll, being 
attyred, decked, and honoured as the idoll it selfe, and 
doing all reverence vnto him, they delivered him into the 
handes of the sacrificers, who at that instant presented them- 
selves, taking him by the feete and handes. The Pope did 
open his stomacke, and pull out his hart, then did he lift vp 
his hands as high as he could, shewing it to the Sunne, and 
to the idoll, as hath beene said. Having thus sacrificed him 
that represented the idoll, they went into a holy place ap- 
pointed for this purpose, whither came the yong men and 
virgins of the Temple with their ornaments, the which being 
put in order, they danced and sung with drummes and other 
instruments, on the which the chiefe Priests did play and 
sound. Then came all the Noblemen with ensignes and 
ornaments like to the yong men, who danced round about 
them. They did not usually kill any other men that day, 
but him that was sacrificed, yet every fourth yeare they had 
others with him, which was in the yeare of lubile and full 
pardons. After Sun set, every one being satisfied with 
sounding, eating, and drinking, the virgins went al to their 
convent, they took great dishes of earth full of bread mixt 
with hony, covered with small panniers, wrought and 
fashioned with dead mens heads and bones, and they carried 
the collation to the idoll, mounting vp to the court, w^hich 
was before the doore of the Oratorio : and having set them 
downe, they retired in the same order as they came, the 
steward going still before. Presently came forth all the 
yong men in order, with canes or reedes in their handes, 
who beganne to runne as fast as they could to the toppe of 
the staires of the Temple, who should come first to the dishes 
of the collation. The Elders or chiefe Priests observed him 

Lib. v. 


that came first, second, third, and fourth, without regarding 
the rest. This collation was likewise all carried away by the 
yong men as great relicks. This done, the foure that arrived 
first were placed in the midst of the Antients of the Temple, 
bringing them to their chambers with much honour, prais- 
ing them, and giving them ornaments; and from thence 
forth they were respected and reverenced as men of marke. 
The taking of this collation being ended, and the feast cele- 
brated with much ioy and noise, they dismissed all the yong 
men and maides which had served the idoll: by meanes 
whereof they went one after another, as they came forth. 
All the small children of the colledges and schooles were at 
the gate of the court, with bottomes of rushes and hearbes 
in their hands, which they cast at them, mocking and laugh- 
ing, as of them that came from the service of the idoll ; 
they had libertie then to dispose of themselves at their 
pleasure, and thus the feast ended. 

Chap. xxx. — Of the Feast of Marchants, ivhich those of 
Cholutecas did celebrate. 

Although I have spoken sufficiently of the service the 
Mexicaines did vnto their gods, yet will I speak something 
of the feast they called Quetzacoaatl, which was the god of 
riches, the which was solemnised in this manor. Fortie 
daies before the Marchants bought a slave well proportioned, 
without any fault or blemish, either of sickenes or of hurte, 
whom they did attyre with the ornaments of the idoll, that 
he might represent it fortie daies. Before his clothing they 
did dense him, washing him twice in a lake, which they 
called the lake of the gods; and being purified, they at- 
tyred him like the idoll. During these forty daies, hee was 
much respected for his sakewhom he represented. By night 
they did imprison him (as hath beene said) lest he should 


flie, and in the morning they took him out of prison, setting ^^^- "'• 
him vpon an eminent place, where they served him, giving 
him exquisite meates to eate. After he had eaten, they 
put a chaine of flowers about his necke, and many nosegaies 
in his hands. Hee had a well appointed guard, with much 
people to accompany him. When he went through the 
Cittie, he went dancing and singing through all the streetes, 
that hee might bee knowne for the resemblance of their 
god, and when hee beganne to sing, the women and little 
children came forth of their houses to salute him, and to 
offer vnto him as to their god. Two old men of the 
Antients of the Temple came vnto him nine dales before 
the feast, and humbling themselves before him, they said 
with a low and submisse voyce. Sir, you must vnderstand 
that nine dales hence the exercise of dancing and singing 
doth end, and thou must then die; and then he must answer 
in a good houre.^ They call this ceremony Neyolo Maxilt 
Ileztli, which is to say, the advertisement j^ and when they 
did thus advertise him, they took very carefull heede whether 
hee were sad, or if he danced as ioyfully as he was accus- 
tomed, the which if he did not as cheerefully as they de- 
sired, they made a foolish superstition in this manor. They 
presently tooke the sacrificing rasors, the which they washed 
and clensed from the blood of men which remained of the 
former sacrifices. Of this washing they made a drinke 
mingled with another liquor made of Cacao, giving it him 
to drinke ; they said that this would make him forget what 
had been said vnto him, and would make him in a manor in- 
censible, returning to his former dancing and mirth. They 
said, moreover, that he would offer himself cheerfully to 
death, being inchanted with this drinke. The cause why 
they sought to take from him this heavinesse, was, for that 
they held it for an ill augure, and a fore-telling of some 

^ " Y el avia de responder que fuesse mucho de norabuena." 
!* " El apercebimiento." 

C C 


Lib. V. gyeat harme. The day of the feast being come, after they 
had done him much honor, sung, and given him incense, the 
sacrificers took him about midnight and did sacrifice him, as 
hath been said, offering his heart vnto the Moone, the which 
they did aftervvardes cast against the idoll, letting the bodie 
fall to the bottome of the staires of the Temple, where such 
as had offered him took him vp, which were the Marchants, 
whose feast it was. Then having carried him into the 
chiefest mans house amongst them, the body was drest with 
divers sawces, to celebrate (at the breake of day) the ban- 
quet and dinner of the feast, having first bid the idoll good 
morrow, with a small dance, which they made whilst the day 
did breake, and that they prepared the sacrifice. Then did 
all the Marchants assemble at this banket, especially those 
which made it a traffioke to buy and sell slaves, who were 
bound every yeare to offer one, for the resemblance of their 
god. This idoll was one of the most honoured in all the 
land ; and therefore the Temple where he was, was of great 
authoritie. There were threescore staires to ascend vp vnto 
it, and on the toppe was a court of an indifferent largenesse, 
very finely drest and plastered, in the midst whereof was a 
great round thing like vnto an Oven, having the entrie low 
and narrow, so as they must stoope very low that should 
enter into it. This Temple had chambers and chappels as 
the rest, where there were convents of Priests, yong men, 
m aides, and children, as hath been said ; and there was one 
Priest alone resident continually, the which they changed 
weekely. For although there were in every one of these 
temples three or foure Curates or Ancients,^ yet did every 
one serve his weeke without parting. His charge that weeke 
(after he had instructed the children) was to strike vp a 
drum me every day at the Sunne setting, to the same end 
that we are accustomed to ring to evensong. This drumme 
was such as they might heare the sound thereof through- 

» " Curas Di^nidades." 


out all the partes of the Cittie, then every man shut vp '^^^- v- 
his merchandise, and retired vnto his house, and there v^as 
so great a silence, as there seemed to be no living crea- 
ture in the Tovvne. In the morning whenas the day beganne 
to breake, they beganne to sound the drumme, which was 
a signe of the day beginning, so as travellers and strangers 
attended this siofnall to beo^inne their iournies, for till that 
time it was not lawfull to goe out of the cittie. 

There was in this temple a court of a reasonable great - 
nes, in the which they made great dances and pastimes, 
with games or comedies the day of the idolls feast ; for 
which purpose there was in the middest of this court a 
theatre of thirty foote square, very finely decked and trim- 
med, the which they decked with flowers that day, with all 
the arte and invention that mought be, beeing invironed 
round with arches of divers flowers and feathers, and in some 
places there were tied many small birds, connies, and other 
tame beasts. After dinner all the people assembled in this 
place, and the players presented themselves, and played 
comedies : some counterfeit the deafe and the rheumatike, 
others the lame, some the blinde, and without handes, which 
came to seeke for cure of the idoll : the deafe answered con- 
fusedly, the rheumatike did cough, the lame halted, telling 
their miseries and griefes, wherewith they made the people 
to laugh j others came foorth in the forme of little beasts, 
some were attired like snailes, others like toades, and some 
like lizardes : then meeting together, they tolde their offices, 
and every one retyring to his place, they sounded on small 
flutes, which was pleasant to heare. They likewise counter- 
feited butterflies and small birdes of diverse colours, and the 
children of the Temple represented these formes; then they 
went into a little forrest planted there for the nonce, where 
the Priests of the Temple drew them foorth with instru- 
ments of musicke. In the meane time they vsed many 
pleasant speeches, some in propounding, others in defend- 

c c 2 


Lib. V. ij^g^ wherewitli the assistants were pleasantly intertained. 
This doone, they made a niaske or mummerie with all these 
personages, and so the feast ended : the which were vsually 
doone in their principall feasts. 

Chap. xxxi. — What lorofit may he clrawne out of this discourse 
of the Indians superstitions. 

This may suffice to vnderstand the care and paine the In- 
dians tooke to serve and honour their Idolls, or rather the 
divell : for it were an infinite matter, and of small profit, to 
report every thing that hath passed, for that it may seeme 
to some needlesse to have spoken thus much : and that it is 
a losse of time, as in reading the fables that are fained by 
the Romaines of Knighthoode. But if such as holde this 
opinion will looke wel into it, they shall finde great differ- 
ence betwixt the one and the other : and that it may be 
profitable, for many considerations, to have the knowledge 
of the customs and ceremonies the Indians vsed : first, this 
knowledge is not only profitable, but also necessary in those 
countries where these superstitions have been practised, to 
the end that Christians, and the maisters of the Law of 
Christ, may knowe the errours and superstitions of the An- 
tients, and observe if the Indians vse them not at this day, 
either secretely or openly. For this cause many learned and 
worthy men have written large Discourses of what they 
have found : yea, the Provinciall counsells have commaunded 
them to write and print them, as they have doone in Lima, 
where hath beene made a more ample Discourse than this. 
And therefore it importeth for the good of the Indians, that 
the Spaniardes being in those parts of the Indies, should 
have the knowledge of all these things. This Discourse may 
likewise serve the Spaniards there, and all others wherso- 
ever, to give infinite thankes to God our Lord, who hath im- 


parted so great a benefite vnto vs, giving them his holy 
Lawe^ which is most iust, pure_, and altogether profitable. 
The which we may well know^ comparing it with the lawes 
of Sathan, where so many wretched people have lived so 
miserably. It may likewise serve to discover the pride, 
envy, deceipts, and ambushes of the Divell, which he prac- 
tiseth against those hee holdes captives, seeing on the one 
side hee seekes to imitate God, and make comparison with 
him and his holy Lawe ; and on the other side, hee dooth 
mingle with his actions so many vanities, filthinesse, and 
cruelties, as hee that hath no other practise but to sophisti- 
cate and corrupt all that is good. Finally, hee that shall see 
the darkenes and blindenes wherein so many Provinces and 
Kingdoms have lived so long time, yea and wherein many 
Nations, and a great part of the world live yet, deceived 
with the like trumperies, he can not (if he have a Christians 
heart) but give thankes to the high God, for such as hee 
hath called out of so great darkenes, to the admirable light 
of his Gospel : beseeching the vnspeakeable charitie of the 
Creator to preserve and increase them in his knowledge 
and obedience, and likewise be grieved for those that follow 
still the way of perdition. And that in the end hee beseech 
the Father of Pitty to open vnto them the treasures and 
riches of lesus Christ, who with the Father and Holy Ghost 
raignes in all Ages. Amen. 

Lib. V, 


Of the Naturall and Morall Historic of the 


Chap. i. — That they erre in their opinionj which holde the 
Indians to want iudgement. 

Lib. VI. Having treated before of the religion the Indians vsed_, I 
pretend to discourse in this Booke of their customs, policy, 
and government, for two considerations : the one is to con- 
fute that false opinion many doe commonly holde of them, 
that they are a grose and brutish people, or that they have 
so little vnderstanding, as they scarce deserve the name of 
anie. So as many excesses and outrages are committed 
vpon them, vsing them like bruite beasts, and reputing 
them vnworthy of any respect ; which is so common and so 
dangerous an errour (as they know well who with any zeale 
and consideration have travelled amongst them, and that 
have seene and observed their secrets and counsells). And 
moreover, for the small regard many make of these Indians, 
who presume to knowe much, and yet are commonly the 
most ignorant and presumptuous. I finde no better meanes 
to confound this pernicious opinion, then in relating their 
order and maner, whenas they lived vnder their owne lawes, 
in which, although they had many barbarous things, and 
without ground, yet had they many others worthy of great 
admiration, whereby wee may vnderstand, that they were 
by nature capable to receive any good instructions : and be- 
sides, they did in some thiogs passe many of our common- 


weales. It is no matter of marvell if there were so great ^^^• 
and grose faults amongst them, seeing there hath been like- 
wise amongst the most famous Law-givers and Philosophers 
(yea, without exception, Lycurgus and Plato), and amongest 
the wisest common-wealths, as the Romanes and Athenians, 
where wee may finde things so full of ignorance, and so 
worthy of laughter, as in trueth if the common weales of the 
Mexicaines, or of the Yncas, hadde beene knowne in those 
times of the Romans and the Greekes, their lawes and 
governments had been much esteemed by them. But we at 
this day little regarding this, enter by the sword, without 
hearing or vnderstanding j perswading our selves that the 
Indians affaires deserve no other respect, but as of venison 
that is taken in the forrest, and broght for our vse and de- 

The most grave and diligent, which have searched and 
attained to the knowledge of their secrets, customs, and 
antient government, holde another opinion, and admire the 
order and discourse that hath been betwixt them. Of which 
number is Polo Ondegardo, whome I vsually followe in the 
discourse of matters of Peru, and for these of Mexico Juan 
de Tobar, who had a Prebend in the Church of Mexico, and 
is now of our company of lesuites, who by the commaunde- 
ment of the viceroy Don Martin Henriques,^ have made a 
diligent and a large collection of the histories of that nation, 
and many other grave and notable personages, who, both 
by word and writing, have sufficiently informed me of all 
those things I shall here set downe. The other end, and 
the good which may followe by the knowledge of the lawes, 
customes, and government of the Indians, is, that wee may 
helpe and governe them with the same lawes and customes, 

1 Second son of Don Francisco Henriquez y Almansa, first Marquis 
of Alcanizes, by Dona Isabel de Ulloa. He was Viceroy of Mexico from 
1568 to 1580, and of Peru from 1581 to 1583. He died at Lima on 
March 12 th, 1583. 

Lib. VI. 


for that they ought to be ruled according to their owne 
lawes and priviledgeSj so farre foorth as they doe not con- 
tradict the Lawe of Christ, and his holy Churchy which 
ought to be maintained and kept as their fundamental! 
lawes. For the ignorance of laws and customes hath bred 
many errours of great importance^ for that the Governours 
and Judges knowe not well how to give sentence, nor rule 
their subjects. And besides, the wrong which is doone 
vnto them against reason, it is preiudiciall and hurtefull 
vnto our selves ; for thereby they take occasion to abhorre 
vs, as men both in good and in evill alwayes contrary vnto 

Chap. ii. — Of the method of com^iitmg timOj and the 
Kalendar the Mexicaines vsed. 

And to beginne then by the division and supputation of 
times which the Indians made,wherein truely wee may well 
perceive the great signes of their vivacitie and good vnder- 
standing. I will first shew in what sorte the Mexicaines 
counted and divided their yeere, their moneths, their kalen- 
der, their computations, their worldes and ages. They 
divided the yeare into eighteene moneths, to which they 
gave twentie dayes, wherein the three hundred and three 
score days are accomplished, not comprehending in any of 
these moneths the five dayes that remaine, and make the 
yeare perfect. But they did reckon them aparte, and called 
them the dayes of nothing : during the which, the people 
did not any thing, neither went they to their Temples, but 
occupied themselves only in visiting one another, and so 
spent the time : the sacrificers of the Temple did likewise 
cease their sacrifices. These five dayes being past, they 
beganne the computation of the yeare, whereof the first 
nioneth and the beginning was in March, when the leaves 


beganne to growe greene, although they tooke three dayes 
of the moneth of February ; for the first day of their yeere 
was, as it were,, the sixe and twentie day of February, as 
appeareth by their kalender, within the which ours is like- 
wise comprehended and contained with a very ingenious 
Arte, which was made by the antient Indians that knew the 
first Spaniardes. I have scene this Kalender, and have it 
yet in my custody, which well deserveth the sight, to vnder- 
stand the discourse and industry the Mexicaine Indians had. 
Every one of these eighteene monethes had his proper name, 
and his proper picture, the which was commonly taken of 
the principall feast that was made in that moneth, or from 
the diversitie of tymes, which the yeere caused in that 
moneth. They had in this Kalender certaine dayes marked 
and distinguished for their feasts. And they accompted 
their weekes by thirteene dayes, marking the dayes with a 
Zero or cipher, which they multiplied vnto thirteene, and 
then beganne to count, one, two, etc. They did likewise 
marke the yeares of these wheeles with foure signes or 
figures, attributing to every yeare a peculiar signe, wherof 
one was of a house, an other of a conny, the third of a reedcj 
and the fourth of a flint. They painted them in this sort, 
noting by those figures the yeare that did runne, saying of 
so many houses, of so many flints of such a wheele, hap- 
pened such a thing. For we must vnderstand that their 
wheele, which was an age, contained foure weekes of yeares, 
every weeke containing thirteene yeares, which in all made 
fiftie twoo yeares. In the midst of this wheele they painted 
a Sunne, from the which went foure beames or lines in 
crosse to the circumference of the wheele ; and they made 
their course, even as the circumference was divided into 
foure equall partes, every one with his line, having a dis- 
tinct colour from the rest, and the foure colors were greene, 
blew, red, and yellow : every portion of these foure had 
thirteene separations which had all their signes or particular 

Lib. VI. 


Lib. VI. figures, of a house, a conny, a reed, or a flint, noting by. 
every signe a yeare, and vppon the head of this signe they 
painted what had happened that yeare. 

And therefore I did see in the Kalender mentioned the 
yeare when the Spaniards entered Mexico, marked by the 
picture of a man clad in red, after our manner, for such was 
the habite of the first Spaniard, whome Fernand Cortes sent 
at the end of the two and fifty years, which finished the 
wheele. They vsed a pleasant ceremony, which was the 
last night they didde breake all their vesselles and stuffe, 
and put out their fire, and all the lights, saying, that the 
worlde should end at the finishing of one of these wheeles, 
and it might be at that time : for (said they), seeing the 
worlde must then end, what neede is there to provide meate 
to eate, and therefore they had no further neede of vessel 
nor fire. Ypon this conceit they passed the night in great 
feare, saying it might happen there would be no more day, 
and they watched very carefully for the day; but when they 
saw the day beginne to breake, they presently beat manie 
drummes, and sounded cornets, flutes, and other instru- 
ments of ioy and gladnesse, saying, that God did yet pro- 
long the time with another age, which were fiftie two 
yeares. And then beganne an other wheele. The first day 
and beginning of this age they took new fire, and bought 
new vesselles to dresse their meate, and all went to the 
high Priest for this new fire, having first made a solemne 
sacrifice, and given thanks for the comming of the day, and 
prolongation of an other age. This was their manner of 
accounting their j^eares, moneths, weekes, and ages. 


Chap. hi. — Hoiu the Kings Yncas accounted the yeares and 


Although the computation of time practised amongst the i^". vi. 
Mexicaines bee ingenious enough and certaine, for men that 
had no learning ; yet, in my opinion_, they wanted discourse 
and consideration, having not grounded their computation 
according vnto the course of the moone, nor distributed 
their months accordingly, wherein those of Peru have far 
surpassed them : for they divided their yeare into as many 
dayeSj perfectly accomplished as we do heere, and into 
twelve moneths or moones, in the which they imployed and 
consumed the eleven daies that remaind of the moone_, as 
Polo writes. To make the computation of their yeare sure 
and certaine, they vsed this industry j vppon the moun- 
taines which are about the citty of Cuzco (where the Kings 
Yncas held their court, beeing the greatest sanctuary of 
those realm es, and as we should say an other Rome), there 
were twelve pillars set in order, and in such distaunce the 
one from the other, as every month one of these pillars did 
note the rising and setting of the sunne. They called them 
Succanga,^ by meanes whereof they taught and shewed the 
feasts, and the seasons fitte to sowe and reape, and to do 
other things. They did certaine sacrifices to these pillars of 
the sunne. Every month had his proper name and peculiar 
feasts. They beganne the yeare by January, as wee doe. 
But since, a king Ynca called Pachacutec,^ which signifies 
a reformer of time, beganne their yeare by December, 
by reason (as I coniecture) that then the Sunne returneth 

^ Sucanca. Suca is a ridge or furrow in Quichua. Sucani, "I make 
furrows". Sucanca is the future passive participle, "that which is about 
to be furrowed"; possibly referring to the alternate light and shadow 
caused by the sunlight between the pillars ; making the ground appear 
in ridges. — See G. cle la Vega^ i, p. 178. 

Pacha, time ; Cutini^ I overturn, or reform. 



Lib. VI. fpom tliG last poynt of Capricorne^ which is the tropike 
neerest vnto them. I know not whether the one or the 
other have observed any Bisexte, although some holde the 
contrary. The weekes which the Mexicaines did reckon 
were not properly weekes, being not of seaven dayes : the 
Yncas likewise made no mention thereof, which is no 
wonder, seeing the account of the weeke is not grounded 
vpon the course of the sunne, as that of the yeare, nor of 
the moone, as that of the month ; but among the Hebrewes 
it is grounded vpon the creation of the world_, as Moses re- 
portethj and amongest the Greekes and Latins vpon the 
number of the seven planets, of whose names the dayes of 
the weeke have taken their denomination; yet was it much 
for those Indians, being men without bookes and learning, 
to have a yeare, seasons, and feasts, so well appoynted as I 
have sayd. 

Chap. iv. — That no nation of the Indies hath heene found to 
have had the vse of letter's. 

Letters were invented to signifie properly the words we 
do pronounce, even as woordes (according to the Philoso- 
pher) are the signes and demonstrations of mans thoughtes 
and conceptions. And both the one and the other (I say 
the letters and words) were ordained to make things 
knowne. The voyce for such as are present, and letters for 
the absent, and such as are to come. Signes and markes 
which are not properly to signifie wordes but things, can- 
not be called, neyther in trueth are they letters, although 
they be written, for wee can not say that the Picture of the 
sunne be a writing of the sunne, but onely a picture ; the 
like may be saide of other signes and characters, which have 
no resemblance to the thing, but serve onely for memorie : 
for he that invented them did not ordaine them to signifie 


wordeSj but onely to note the thing : neyther do they call ^^^- "^^• 
those characters^ letters_, or writings, as indeede they are 
notj but rather ciphers or remembraunces, as those be 
which the Spherists or Astronomers do vse, to signifie 
divers signes or planets of Mars, Venus, lupiter, etc. 

Such characters are ciphers, and no letters : for what 
name soever Mars may have in Italian, French, or Spanish, 
this character doth alwaies signifie it, the which is not found 
in letters : for, althogh they signify the thing, yet is it by 
meanes of words. So, as they which know not the tongue, 
vnderstand them not : as, for example, the Greekes nor the 
Hebrews, cannot conceive what this word Sol doth signifie, 
although they see it written ; for that they vnderstand not 
the Latine word : so as writing and letters are onely prac- 
tised by them, which signifie words therewith. For if they 
signifie things mediately, they are no more letters nor writ- 
ings, but ciphers and pictures : whereby we may observe 
two notable things. The one, that the memory of histories 
and antiquities may bee preserved by one of these three 
meanes, either by letters and writings, as hath beene vsed 
amongst the Latinos, Greekes, Hebrews, and many other 
Nations; or by painting, as hath beene vsed almost through- 
out all the world, for it is said in the second Nicene Coun- 
sell, '^ Painting is a booke for fooles which cannot reade^^ 
or by ciphers and characters, as the cipher signifies the 
number of a hundred, a thousand, and others, without 
noting the word of a hundred or a thousand. The other 
thing we may observe thereby is that which is propounded 
in this chapter, which is, that no Nation of the Indies dis- 
covered in our time, hath had the vse of letters and writ- 
ings, but of the other two sortes, images and figures. The 
which I observe, not onely of the Indies of Peru and New 
Spaine, but also of lappon and China. And although this 
may seeme false to some, seeing it is testified by the dis- 
courses that have beene written, that there are so great 


Lib. VI. Libraries and Vniversities in China and lappon, and that 
mention is made of their Chapas, letters, and expeditions, 
yet that which I say is true^ as you may vnderstand by the 
discourse following. 

Chap. v. — Of the fashion of Letters and Boolces the Ghinois 


There are many which thinke, and it is the most common 
opinion, that the writings which the Chinois vsed are letters, 
as those we vse in Europe, and that by them wee may write 
wordes and discourses, and that they only differ from our 
letters and writings in the diversitie of characters, as the 
Greekes differ from the Latines, and the Hebrews from the 
Chaldees. But it is not so, for they have no Alphabet, 
neither write they any letters, but all their writing is no- 
thing else but painting and ciphering : and their letters 
signifie no partes of distinctions as ours do, but are figures 
and representations of things, as of the Sunne, of fire, of a 
man, of the sea, and of other things. The which appears 
plainely, for that their writings and chapas are vnderstood 
of them all, although the languages the Chinois speake are 
many and very different, in like sort as our numbers of 
ciphers are equally vnderstoode in the Spanish, French, and 
Arabian tongues : for this figure 8, wheresoever it be, sig- 
nifies eight, although the French call this number of one 
sort and the Spaniards of another. So as things being of 
themselves innumerable, the letters likewise or figures 
which the Chinois vse to signifie them by, are in a maner 
infinite : so as he that shall reade or write at China (as the 
Mandarins doe) must know and keepe in memory at the 
least fourescore and five thousand characters or letters, and 
those which are perfect herein know above sixscore thou- 
sand. A strange and prodigious thing ; yea, incredible, if 


it were not testified by men worthy of credite, as the fathers '^^^- ^^' 
of our company wlio are there continually, learning their 
language and writing, wherein they have studied day and 
night above tenne yeares, with a continuall labour for the 
charitie of Christ and the desire of salvation of soules, pre- 
vailed in them above all this labour and difEcultie. For 
this reason, learned men are so much esteemed in China, for 
the difficultie there is to conceive them : and those only 
have tlie offices of Mandarins, Governours, Judges, and 
Captaines. For this cause the fathers take great pains to 
instruct their children to reade and write. There are many 
of these schooles where the children are taught, where the 
masters teach them by day, and the fathers at home by 
night : so as they hurt their eyes much, and they whippe 
them often with reedes, although not so severely as they doe 
offenders. They call it the Mandarin tongue, which requires 
a maas age to be conceived. And you must vnderstand 
that, although the tongue which the Mandarins speake bee 
peculiar and different from the Vulgar, which are many, 
and that they studie it, as they doe Latine and Greeke 
heere, and that the learned only throghout all China do 
vnderstand it : so it is notwithstanding that all that is 
written in it, is vnderstood in all tongues : and although all 
the Provinces doe not vnderstand one another by speaking, 
yet by writing they doe : for there is but one sort of figures 
and characters for them all, which signifie one thing, but 
not the same word and prolation : seeing (as I have said) 
they are onely to denote the things and not the worde, as 
we may easily vnderstand by the examples of numbers in 
ciphering. And they of lappon and the Chinois do reade 
and vnderstand well the writings one of another, although 
they be divers Nations and different in tongue and lan- 
guage. If they speake what they reade or write, they 
should not bee vnderstood. Such are the letters and bookes 
the Chinois vse, being so famous in the world. To make 

Lib. VI. 


their impressions_, they grave a boord or plank with the 
figures they will prints then do they stampe as many leaves 
of paper as they lift_, of the same sort as they have made 
their pictures_, the which are graven in copper or wood. 
But a man of iudgement may aske, how they could signifie 
their conceptions by figures, which approached neere or re- 
semble the thing they would represent ? As to say, the 
Sunne heats, or that he hath beheld the Sunne, or the day 
is of the Sunne. Finally, how it were possible to denote 
by the same figures the case, the coniunction, and the ar- 
ticles, which are in many tongues and writings ? I answer 
therevnto, that they distinguish and signifie this varietie by 
certaine points, strikes, and dispositions of the figure. But 
it is difficult to vnderstand how they can write proper 
names in their tongue, especially of strangers, being things 
they have never scene, and not able to invent figures proper 
vnto them. I have made triall thereof, being in Mexico 
with certain Chinois, willing them to write this proposition in 
their language, ^^ Joseph de Acostahas come from Peru", and 
such like : wherevpon the Chinois was long pensive, but in 
the end hee did write it, the which other Chinois did after 
reade, although they did vary a little in the pronountiation 
of the proper name. For they vse this devise to write a 
proper name : they seeke out something in their tongue 
that hath resemblance to that name, and set downe the 
figure of this thing. And as it is difficult among so many 
proper names to finde things to resemble them in the pro- 
lation, so is it very difficult and troublesome to write such 
names. Ypon this purpose, father Alonso Sanchez told vs 
that when he was in China, being led into divers Tribunall 
seates, from Manderin to Manderin, they were long in put- 
ting his name in writing in their chapas, yet in the end 
they did write it after their manor, and so ridiculously, that 
they scarce came neere to the name : and this is the fashion 
of letters and writings which the Chinois vsed. That of 


the lapponois approclied very neere^ althougli they affirme 
that the Noblemen of lappon that came into Europe did 
write all things very easily in their language were they of 
our proper names : yea, I have had some of their writings 
shewed me, whereby it seemes they should have some 
kinde of letters, although the greatest part of their writings 
be by the characters and figures, as hath bin saide of the 

Lib. VI. 

Chap. vi. — Of the Schooles and Vniversities of GJivna. 

The fathers of our Company say that they have not scene 
in China any great schooles or vniversities of Philosophic, 
and other natural! sciences, beleeving there is not any, but 
that all their studie is in the Mandarin tongue, which is 
very ample and hard, as I have said ; and what they studie 
bee things written in their owne tongue, which be histories 
of sects, and opinions, of civill lawes, of morall proverbes, 
of fables, and many other such compositions that depend 
thereon. Of divine sciences they have no knowledge, 
neither of naturall things, but some small remainders of 
straied propositions, without art or methode, according to 
everie mans witte and studie. As for the Mathematikes, they 
have experience of the celestiall motions, and of the starres. 
And for Phisicke, they have knowledge of herbs, by means 
wherof they cure many diseases, and vse it much. They 
write with pencils, and have many books written with the 
hand, and others printed, but in a bad order. They are 
great plaiers of comedies, the which they perform with 
great preparation of theaters, apparel, bels, drums, and 
voices. Some fathers report to have seen comedies which 
lasted ten or twelve dayes and nights, without any want of 
comedians, nor company to beholde them. They doe make 
many different sceanes, and whilst some act the others feede 
and sleep. In these comedies they do commonly treate of 

D D 


Lib. VI. morall tilings, and of good examples, intermingled with 
pleasant devices. This is the summe of that which our 
men report of the letters and exercises of them of China, 
wherein wee must confesse to be much wit and Industrie. 
But all this is of small substance, for in effect all the 
knowledge of the Chinois tendes onely to read and write, 
and no farther, for they attaine to no high knowledge. 
And their writing and reading is not properly reading and 
writing, seeing their letters are no letters that can represent 
wordes, but figures of innumerable things, the which cannot 
be learned but in a long time, and with infinite labour. 
But in the end, with all their knowledge, an Indian of Peru 
or Mexico that hath learned to read and write knowes more 
than the wisest Mandarin that is amongst them : for that 
the Indian with foure and twentie letters which he hath 
learned will write all the wordes in the world, and a 
Mandarin with his hundred thousand letters will be troubled 
to write some proper name, as of Martin, or Alonso, and 
with greater reason he shall be lesse able to write the 
names of things he knowes not. So as the writing in 
China is no other thing but a maner of painting or 

Chap. vii. — Of the fashion of letters and ivritings which the 

Mexicaines used. 

We finde amongest the Nations of New Spaine a great 
knowledge and memorie of antiquitie, and therefore, 
searching by what meanes the Indians had preserved their 
Histories and so many particularities, I learned that although 
they were not so subtill and curious as the Chinois and 
those of lappon, yet had they some kinde of letters and 
bookes amongest them whereby they preserved (after their 
manner) the deeds of their predecessors. In the province 
of Yu-catan, where the Bishopricke is, which they call of 


Honduras^ there were bookes of the leaves of trees, folded 
and squared after their manner, in the which the wise 
Indians contained the distribution of their times, the 
knowledge of the planets, of beasts and other naturall 
things, with their antiquities, a thing full of great curiositie 
and diligence. It seemed to some Pedant that all this was 
an inchantment and magicke arte, who did obstinately 
maintaine that they ought to be burnt, so as they were 
committed to the fire. Which since, not onely the Indians 
found to be ill done, but also the curious Spaniards, who 
desired to know the secrets of the countrey. The like hath 
happened in other things, for our men thinking that all was 
but superstition have lost many memorialls of ancient and 
holy things, which might have profited much. This pro- 
ceedeth of a foohsh and ignorant zeale, who not knowing, 
nor seeking to knowe what concerned the Indians, say 
preiudicately that they are all but witchcrafts, and that all 
the Indians are but drunkards, incapable to know or learne 
anything. For such as would be curiously informed of 
them have found many things worthy of consideration. 
One of our company of lesuites, a man very witty and wel 
experienced, did assemble in the province of Mexico the 
Antients of Tescuco, of Talla, and of Mexico, conferring at 
large with them, who shewed unto him their books, histories 
and kalenders, things very woorthy the sight, bicause they 
had their figures and hierogliphicks, whereby they repre- 
sented things in this manner : Such as had forme or figure 
were represented by their proper images, and such as had 
not any were represented by characters that signified them, 
and by this meanes they figured and writ what they would. 
And to observe the time when anything did happen they 
had those painted wheeles, for every one of them contained 
an age, which was two and fifty years, as hath beene said ; 
and of the side of those wheeles they did paint with figures 
and characters, right against the yeare, the memorable 

D D 2 

Lib, VI. 

404 MrrxicAN records. 

^''"- ^'^- tilings that happened therein. As they noted the yeare 
whenas the Spaniards entred their Countrey, they painted 
a man with a hatte and a red ierkin vpon the signe of the 
reede, which did rule then, and so of other accidents. Bat 
for that their writings and characters were not sufficient, as 
our letters and writings be, they could not so plainly 
expresse the words, but onely the substance of their 
conceptions. And forasmuch as they were accustomed to 
reherse Discourses and Dialogues by heart, compounded by 
their Oratours and auntient Rhethoritians, and many Chapas 
made by their Poets (which were impossible to learne by 
their Hierogliphickes and Characters), the Mexicaines were 
very curious to have their children learne those dialogues 
and compositions by heart. For the which cause they had 
Schooles, and as it were Colledges or Seminaries, where 
the Auncients taught children these Orations, and many 
other things, which they preserved amongst them by 
tradition from one to another as perfectly as if they had 
beene written ; especially the most famous Nations had a 
care to have their children (which had any inclination to be 
E/hetoritians, and to practise the office of Orators) to learne 
these Orations by heart : So as when the Spaniardes came 
into their Countrey, and had taught them read and write 
our letters, many of the Indians then wrote these Orations, 
as some grave men doe witnes that had read them. Which 
I say, for that some which shall haply reade these long and 
eloquent discourses in the Mexicaine Historic will easilie 
beleeve they have beene invented by the Spaniardes, and 
not really taken and reported from the Indians. But having 
knowne the certaine trueth, they will give credite (as reason 
is) to their Histories. They did also write these Discourses 
after their manner, by Characters and Images : and 1 have 
scene, for my better satisfaction, the Pater nostcr, Ave 
Mariaj and Simholl, and the generall confession of our faith, 
written in this manner by the Indians. 


And in trueth, whosoever shall see them will wonder 

thereat. For to signifie these words^ I, a sinner, do confesse 
mj self, they painted an Indian vpon his knees at a re- 
ligious mans feete^ as one that confesseth himselfe : and 
for this, to God most mighty, they painted three faces^ with 
their crownes, like to the Trinitie ; and to the glorious 
Virgine Marie, they painted the face of our Lady, and halfe 
the body of a little childe ; and for S. Peter and S. Paul, 
heads with crowns, and a key with a sword ; and whereas 
images failed, they did set characters, as " Wherein I have 
sinned, etc.^^, whereby wee may conceive the quickenesse 
of spirite of these Indians, seeing this manner of writing 
of our prayers and matters of faith hath not been taught 
them by the Spaniards^ neither could they have done it if 
they had not had an excellent conception of that was taught 
them. And I have scene in Peru a confession of sinnes, 
brought by an Indian, w^ritten in the same sorte, with pic- 
tures and characters, painting every one of the tenne Com- 
mandments after a certaine manner where there were cer- 
taine markes like ciphers, which were the sinnes he had 
committed against the Commandments. I nothing doubt 
but if any of the most sufficient Spaniards were imployed 
to make memorialles of the like things by their images and 
markes, they would not attaine vnto it in a whole year^ no 
not in tenne. 

Chap. viii. — Of Registers and the manner of reckordng which 
the Indians of Peru vsed. 

Before the Spaniards came to the Indies,, they of Peru 
had no kinde of writing, either letters, characters, ciphers, 
or figures, like to those of China and Mexico : yet pre- 
served they the memory of their Antiquities, and maintained 
an order in all their affairs of peace, warre, and pollicie, for 
that they were carefull obKServers of traditions from one to 


Lib. VI. another, and the young ones learned, and carefully kept, as 
a holy thing, what their superiors had tolde them, and 
taught it with the like care to their posteritie. Besides 
this diligence, they supplied the want of letters and writings, 
partely by painting, as those of Mexico (although they of 
Peru were very grosse and blockish^), and partely, and most 
commonly by Quippos.^ These Quippos are memorialls or 
or registers, made of bowes,^ in the which there are diverse 
knottes and colours, which do signifie diverse things, and 
it is strange to see what they have expressed and repre- 
sented by this meanes : for their Quippos serve them 
insteede of Bookes of histories, of lawes, ceremonies, and 
accounts of their affaires. There were officers appointed to 
keepe these Quippos, the which at this day they call Qui- 
pocamayos, the which were bound to give an account of 
everything, as Notaries and Registers doe heere. There- 
fore they fully believed them in all things, for, according 
to the varietie of business, as warres, pollicie, tributes, 
ceremonies and landes, there were sundry Quippos or 
braunches, in every one of the which there were so many 
knottes, little and great, and strings tied vnto them, some 
red, some greene, some blew, some white ; and finally, such 
diversitie, that even as wee derive an infinite number of 
woordes from the foure and twenty letters, applying them 
in diverse sortes, so doe they draw innumerable woordes 
from their knottes and diversitie of colours. Which thing 
they doe in such a manner that if at this day in Peru, any 
Commissary come at the end of two or three years to take 
information vppon the life of any officer, the Indians come 
with their small reckonings verified, saying, that in such a 
village they have given him so many egges which he hath 
not payed for, in such a house a henne, in another two bur- 
dens of grasse for his horse, and that he hath paied but 

* " Muy grosseras y toscas." ^ tt Quipus." 

' '•' KamaleB," rope's-ends. 


SO much mony, and remaineth debtor so much. The proofe 
being presently made with these numbers of knottes and 
handfulls of cords, it remaines for a certaine testimony and 
register. I did see a handfull of these strings, wherein an 
Indian woman carried written a generall confession of all 
her life, and thereby confessed herselfe as well as I could 
have done it in written paper. I asked her what those 
strings meant that differed from the rest : she answered mee 
they were certaine circumstaunces which the sin required to 
be fully confessed. Besides these Quippos of thred, they have 
an other, as it were a kinde of writing with small stones, 
by means whereof they learne punctually the words they 
desire to know by heart. It is a pleasant thing to see the 
olde and the impotent (with a wheele made of small stones) 
learne the Pater iioster, with another the Ave Maria, with 
another the Creede ; and to remember what stone signifies 
"Which was conceived by the holy-ghost^', and which 
" Suffered under Pontius Pilate". 

It is a pleasant thing to see them correct themselves 
when they doe erre ; for all their correction consisteth 
onelv in beholding* of their small stones. One of these 
wheeles were sufficient to make mee forget all that I do 
knowe by heart. There are a great number of these wheeles 
in the Church-yards for this purpose. But it seemes a 
kinde of witchcraft, to see an other kinde of Quippos, which 
they make of graines of Mays, for to cast vp a hard 
account, wherein a good Arithmetitian would be troubled 
with his penne to make a division ; to see how much every 
one must contribute : they do drawe so many graines from 
one side, and adde so many to another, with a thousand 
other inventions. These Indians will take their graines, 
and place five of one side, three of another, and eight of 
another, and will change one graine of one side, and three 
of another. So as they finish a certaine account, without 
erring in any poynt : and they sooner submitte themselves 

Ltu. VI. 

Lib. VI. 


to reason by these Quippos, what every one ought to pay, 
then we can do with the penne. Hereby we may judge if 
they have any understanding, or be brutish : for my parte, 
I think they passe vs in those things where vnto they do 
apply themselves. 

Chap. ix. — Of the order the Indians liolde in their 


It shalbe good to adde heerevnto what we have observed 
touching the Indians writings ; for their manner was not to 
write with a continued line, but from the toppe to the 
bottome, or in circle-wise. The Latines and Greeks do 
write from the left hand vnto the right, which is the vulgar 
and common manner we do vse. The Hebrewes contrari- 
wise beganne at the right to the left, and therefore their 
bookes beganne where ours did end. The Chinois write 
neither like the Greeks nor like the Hebrews, but from the 
toppe to the bottome, for as they be no letters but whole 
wordes, and that every figure and character signifieth a 
thing, they have no neede to assemble the parts one with 
an other, and therefore they may well write from the toppe 
to the bottome. Those of Mexico for the same cause did 
not write in line, from one side to another, but contrarie to 
the Chinois, beginning below, they mounted vpward. They 
vsed this manor of writing, in the account of their daies, 
and other things which they observed. Yet when they did 
write in their wheels or signes, they beganne from the mid- 
dest where the sun was figured, and so mounted by their 
yeeres vnto the round and circumference of the wheele. To 
conclude, wee finde four different kindes of writings, some 
writte from the right to the left, others from the left to the 
right, some from the toppe to the bottome, and others from 
tlio foote to the toppe, wherein wee may discover the 
diversity of mans judgment. 


Chap. x. — IIoio the Indians dispatched their Messengers, 

To finish the maner they had of writings some may^ with lib- vi. 
reason^ doubt how the Kings of Mexico and Peru had 
intelligence from all those realmes that were so great, or by 
what means they could dispatch their affaires in Court, 
seeing they had no vse of any letters, nor to write pacquets : 
wherein we may be satisfied of this doubt, when we under- 
stand that by wordes, pictures, and these memorialles, they 
were often advertised of that which passed. For this cause 
there were men of great agilitie, which served as curriers, 
to goe and come, whom they did nourish in this exercise of 
running from their youth, labouring to have them well 
breathed, that they might runne to the toppe of a high hill 
without wearines. And therefore in Mexico they gave the 
prize to three or foure that first mounted vp the staires of 
the Temple, as hath beene said in the former Booke. And 
in Cusco, when they made their solemne feast of Capa- 
crayme, the novices did runne who could fastest vp the 
rocke of Yanacauri. And the exercise of running is gen- 
erally much vsed among the Indians. AVhenas there 
chaunced any matter of importaunce, they sent vnto the 
Lordes of Mexico, the thing painted, whereof they would 
advertise them, as they did when the first Spanish ship ap- 
peared to their sight, and when they tooke Toponchan. In 
Peru they were very curious of footemen, and the Ynca had 
them in all parts of the realme as ordinary Posts, called 
Chasquisj whereof shall be spoken in his place. 

Chap. xi. — Of the manner of governementj and of the Kings 
which the Indians had. 

It is apparant that the thing wherein these barbarous 
people shew their barbarisme, was in their gov^ernement 

Lib. VI. 


and manner of commaund : for the more that men approch 
to reason, the more milde is their governement, and lesse 
insolent ; the Kings and Lords are more tractable, agreeing 
better with their subiects, acknowledging them equall in 
nature, though inferiour in duetie and care of the common- 
wealth. But amongst the Barbarians all is contrary, for 
that their government is tyrannous, vsing their subiects like 
beasts, and seeking to be reverenced like gods. For this 
occasion many nations of the Indies have not indured any 
Kings or absolute and soveraigne Lords, but live in commi- 
nalities, creating and appointing Captains and Princes for 
certaine occasions onely, to whome they obey during the 
time of their charge, then after they returne to their former 
estates. The greatest part of this new world (where there 
are no settled kingdoms, nor established commonweales, 
neither princes nor succeeding kings) they governe them- 
selves in this manner, although there be some Lordes and 
principall men raised above the common sort. In this sorte 
the whole Countrey of Cliille is governed, where the Arau- 
canos, those of Tucapel and others, have so many yeeres 
resisted the Spaniards. And in like sort all the new 
kingdome of Granada, that of Guatemala, the Ilandes, all 
Florida, Brassill, Luson, and other countries of great cir- 
cuite : but that in some places, they are yet more barbarous, 
scarcely acknowledging any head, but all commaund and 
governe in common, having no other thing, but wil, violence, 
unreason, and disorder, so as he that most may, most com- 
maunds. At the East Indies there are great kingdomes, 
well ordered and governed, as that of Siam, Bisnaga,^ and 
others, which may bring to field when they please, a hun- 
dred or two hundred thousand men. 

As likewise the Kingdome of China, the which in great- 
nes and power surpasseth all the rest, whose kings (as they 
report) have continued above two thousand yeares, by 

" Bijaynagar." 


meanes of their good order and government. But at the ^^^• 
West Indies they have onely found two Kingdomes or 
setled Empires, that of the Mexicanes in New Spaine, and 
of the Yncas in Peru. It is not easie to be said which of 
the two was the mightiest Kingdome, for that Mote9uma 
exceeded them of Peru in buildings and in the greatnes of 
his court : but the Yncas did likewise exceede the Mexi- 
caines in treasure^ riches, and greatnes of Provinces. In 
regarde of antiquitie, the Monarchic of the Yncas hath the 
advantage, although it be not much, and in my opinion they 
have been equal! in feates of armes and victories. It is 
most certaine that these two Kingdomes have much ex- 
ceeded all the Indian Provinces discovered in this new 
world, as well in good order and government as in power 
and wealth, and much more in superstition and service of 
their idolls, having many things like one to an other. But 
in one thing they differed much, for among the Mexicaines 
the succession of the kingdome was by election, as the 
Empire of the Romans, and that of Peru was hereditarie, 
and they succeeded in bloud, as the Kingdomes of Fraunce 
and Spaine. I will therefore heereafter treate of these two 
governments (as the chiefe subiect and best knowne amongst 
the Indians) being fit for this discourse, leaving many 
tedious details which are not of importance. 

Chap. xii. — Of the Government of the Kings Yncas of Peru. 

The Ynca which ruled in Peru being dead, his lawfuU 
Sonne succeeded him, and so they held him that was borne 
of his chiefe wife, whome they called Coya. The which they 
have alwaies observed since the time of an Ynca, called Yu- 
panqui, who married his sister : for these Kings held it an 
honour to marry their sisters. And although they had 
other wives and concubines, yet the succession of the King- 


^^^^' dome appertained to the son of the Coya. It is true, that 
when the King had a legitimate brother_, he succeeded be- 
fore the Sonne, and after him his nephew and sonne to the 
first. The Curacas and Noblemen held the same order of 
succession in their goods and officeSa And after their 
manor they made excessive ceremonies and obsequies for 
the dead. They observed one custome very great and full 
of statOj that a King which entred newly into his King- 
dome should not inherite any thing of the movables^ imple- 
ments, and treasure of his predecessour^ but hee must 
furnish his house new, and gather together gold, silver, and 
other things necessarie, not touching any thing of the de- 
ceased, the which was wholly dedicated for his Oratorio or 
Guaca, and for the entertainment of the family he left, the 
which with his of-spring was alwayes busied at the sacri- 
fices, ceremonies, and service of the deceased King : for, 
being dead, they presently held him for a god, making 
sacrifices vnto him, images, and such like. By this meanes, 
there was infinite treasure in Peru : for every one of the 
Yncas had laboured to have his Oratorio and treasure sur- 
passe that of his predecessors. The marke or ensigne, 
whereby they tooke possession of the realme, was a red 
rowle of wooll, more fine then silke, the which hung in the 
middest of his forehead : and none but the Ynca alone 
might weare it, for that it was as a Crowne and royall 
Diademe : yet they might lawfully weare a rowle hanging 
on the one side, neere vnto the eare, as some Noblemen did, 
but onely the Ynca might carry it in the middest of his 
forehead. At such time as they tooke this roule or wreathe, 
they made solemne feasts and many sacrifices, with a great 
quantity of vessells of gold and silver, a great number of 
small formes or images of sheep, made of gold and silver, 
great abundance of the stuffes of Cumbi,-^ well wrought, 
both fine and coarser, many shells of the sea of all sortes, 

» " Ccompr\ fine cloth. 


many feathers^ and a thousand sheepe, wliicli must be of ^^^- '^^• 
divers colours. Then the chiefe Priest tooke a yong child 
in his handeSj of the age of six or eight yeares, pronouncing 
these wordes with the other ministers speaking to the image 
of Yiracocha, '^ Lord^ we offer this vnto thee, that thou maiest 
maintaine vs in quiet, and helpe vs in our warres, maintaine 
our Lord the Ynca in his greatnes and estate^ that hee may 
alwaies increase, giving him much knowledge to governe 
vs.^^ There were present at this ceremony and oath men of 
all partes of the Realme, and of all Guacas and Sanctuaries. 
And without doubt, the affection and reverence this people 
bare to their Kings Yncas, was very great, for it is never 
found that any one of his subiectes committed treason 
against him, for that they proceeded in their governments, 
not only with an absolute power, but also with good order 
and iustice, suffering no man to be oppressed. The Ynca 
placed governours in divers Provinces, amongst the which 
some were superiors, and did acknowledge none but him- 
selfe, others were of lesse commaund, and others more par- 
ticular, with so goodly an order, and such gravitie, as no 
man durst bee drunke nor take an eare of Mays from his 
neighbour. These Yncas held it for a maxime, that it was 
necessary to keepe the Indians alwaies in action : and there- 
fore we see it to this day, long cawseis and workes of great 
labour, the which they say were made to exercise the In- 
dians, lest they should remaine idle. When he conquered 
any new Province, he was accustomed presently to send the 
greatest part, and the chiefe of that country into other 
Provinces, or else to his Court, and they call them at this 
day in Peru Mitimas, and in their places hee sent others of 
the Nation of Cusco, especially the Orejones, which were as 
Knights of an ancient house. They punished faultes rigor- 
ously. And therefore such as have any vnder standing 
heereof hold opinion that there can be no better govern- 
ment for the Indians, nor more assured then that of the 


Chap. xiii. — Of the distribution the Yncas made of their 


^^°' ^^' To relate more particularly what I have spoken before, 
you must vnderstand that the distribution which the Yncas 
made of their vassals was so exact and distinct, as he might 
governe them all with great facilitie, although his real me 
were a thousand leagues long : for having conquered a 
Province, he presently reduced the Indians into Towns and 
Comminalties, the which he divided into bandes, hee ap- 
pointed one to have the charge over every ten Indians, over 
every hundred another, over every thousand another, and 
over ten thousand another, whom they called Hunu, the 
which was one of the greatest charges. Yet above all 
in every Province, there was a Governour of the house of 
the Yncas, whom all the rest obeyed, giving vnto him 
every yeare in particular account of what had passed, that 
is, of such as were borne, of those that were dead, and of 
their troups and graine. The Governors went every yeare 
out of Cusco, where they remained, and returned to the 
great feast of Raymi, at the which they brought the tribute 
of the whole Realme to the Court; neither might they enter 
but with this condition. All the Kingdome was divided 
into foure partes, which they called Tahuantinsuyu, that is, 
Chinchasuyu, Collasuyu, Antisuyu, and Cuntisuyu, accord- 
ing to the foure waies which went from Cusco, where the 
Court was resident, and where the generall assemblies of 
the realme were made. These waies and Provinces being 
answerable vnto them, were towards the foure quarters of 
the world, Collasuyu to the South, Chinchasuyu to the 
North, Cuntisuyu to the West, and Antisuyu to the East. 
In every towne and village there were two sortes of people, 
which were of Hanansuyu and Urinsuyu, which is as much 
to say, as those above, and those below. When they com- 


manded any worke to be done, or to furnish any thing to 
the Ynca, the officer knew presently how much every Pro- 
vince, Towne, and Family, ought to furnish, so as the divi- 
sion was not made by equall portions, but by cottization,^ 
according to the qualities and wealth of the Countrie. So 
as for example, if they were to gather a hundred thousand 
Fanegas of Mays, they knew presently how much every 
Province was to contribute, were it a tenth, a seventh, or a 
fifb part. The like was of Townes and Villages and Ayllus 
or Linages. The Quipocamayos, which were the officers and 
intendants, kept the account of all with their strings and 
knottes, without failing, setting downe what every one had 
paied, even to a hen, or a burthen of wood, and in a mo- 
ment they did see by divers registers what every one ought 
to pay. 

Lib. VI. 

Chap. xlv. — Of the Edifices and maner of building of the 


The Edifices and Buildings which the Yncas made in 
temples, fortresses, waies, countrie houses, and such like, 
were many in number, and of an excessive labour, as doth 
appeare at this day by their mines and fragments that 
have remained, both in Cusco, Tiahuanaco,^ Tambo,^ and 
other places, where there are stones of an vnmeasurable 
greatnes, so as men cannot conceive how they were 
cut, brought, and set in their places. There came great 
numbers of people from all Provinces to worke in these 
buildings and fortresses, which the Ynca caused to be 
made in Cusco, or other partes of the Eealme. As these 
workes were strange, and to amaze the beholders, wherein 
they vsed no mortar nor ciment, neither any yron, or 
Steele, to cut, and set the stones in place. They had 
no engines or other instruments to carie them, and yet 

1 '' For quotas." 2 n Tiahuanaco." ^ '' Ollantay-tampu." 


Lib. VI. were they so artificially wrought_, that in many places they 
could not see the ioyntes, and many of these stones are so 
big, that it were an incredible thing if one should not see 
them. At Tiahuanaco I did measure a stone of thirty eight 
foote long, of eighteene broade, and six thicke. And in the 
wall of the fortresse of Cusco, which is of masonry/ there are 
stones of a greater bignes. And that which is most strange, 
these stones being not cut nor squared to ioyne, but con- 
trariwise, very vnequall one with another in forme and 
greatnes, yet did they ioyne them together without ciment 
after an incredible manor. All this was done by the force 
of men who endured their labour with an invincible patience. 
For to ioyne one stone with an other, they were forced to 
handle and trie many of them often, being vneven. The 
Ynca appoynted every yeare what numbers of people should 
labour in these stones and buildings, and the Indians 
made a division araongest them, as of other things, so as no 
man was oppressed. Although these buildings were great, 
yet were they commonly ill appoynted and vnfit, almost 
like to the mosques or buildings of the Barbarians. 

They could make no arches in their edifices, nor mortar 
or cyment to builde them withall. When they saw arches 
of wood built vpon the river of Xauxa, the bridge being 
finished, and the wood broken downe, they all beganne to 
runne away, supposing that the bridge, which was of stone, 
should presently fall; but when they found it to stand 
firme, and that the Spaniards went on it, the Cacique saide 
to his companions, *^ It is reason we should serve these 
men, who in trueth seeme to be the children of the Sunne^''. 
The bridges they made were of reedes plaited, which they 
tied to the bankes with great stakes, for that they could not 
make any bridges of stone or wood. The bridge which is at 
this day vpon the Desaguadero or river draining the great lake 
Chucuito^ in Collao is admirable, for the course of that water 
1 " Maraposteria." ^ Or Titicaca. 


is SO deep as they can not settle any foundation, and so broade ^^^- ^^• 
that it is impossible to make an arch to passe it, so as it 
was altogether impossible to make a bridge eyther of wood 
or stone. But the wit and industry of the Indians invented 
a meanes to make a firme and assured bridge, being only 
of strawe, which seemeth fabulous, yet is it very true. For 
as we have said before, they did binde together certaine 
bundles of reedes, and weedes^ which do grow in the lake 
that they call Totora, and being a light matter that sinkes 
not in the water, they cast it vppon a great quantity of 
reedesj then, having tied those bundles of weedes to either 
side of the river, both men and beasts goe over it with 
ease. Passing over this bridge I wondered, that of so 
common and easie a thing, they had made a bridge, better, 
and more assured than the bridge of boates from Seville 
to Triana. I have measured the length of this bridge, and, 
as I remember, it was above three hundred foote, and they 
say that the depth of this current is very great; and it 
seemes above, that the water hath no motion, yet they say, 
that at the bottome it hath a violent and very furious 
course. And this shall sufl&ce for buildings. 

Chap. xv. — Of the Yncas revenues, and the order of Tributes 
they imposed vjjon the Indians, 

The Yncas riches was incomparable, for although no king 
did inherite the riches and treasure of his predecessor, 
yet had he at commaund all the riches of his realmes, 
as well silver and gold, as the stuffe of Cumbi,^ and cattell 
wherein they abounded, and their greatest riches of all, was 
their innumerable number of vassals, which were all. 
imployed as it pleased the King. They brought out of every 
province what he had chosen for tribute. The Chichas sent 
him sweete and rich woods; the Lucanas sent bearers to 

* Fine cloth. 

E E 

Lib. VI. 


cany his Litter ; the Chumbivilcas, dauncers ; and so the 
other provinces sent him what they had of aboundaunce, 
besides their generall tribute, wherevnto every one contri- 
buted. The Indians that were appointed to that end, labored 
in the mines of golde and silver, which did abound in Peru, 
whom the Ynca intertained with all they needed for their 
expences ; and whatsoever they drew of gold and silver, was 
for him. By this meanes there were so great treasures in 
this kingdome, as it is the opinion of many, that what fell 
in the handes of the Spaniardes, although it were very 
much, as wee know, was it not the tenth part of that which 
they hid and buried in the ground, the which they could 
never discover, notwithstanding all the search covetousnesse 
had taught them. But the greatest wealth of these barba- 
rous people, was, that their vassalles were all slaves, whose 
labour they vsed at their pleasure ; and that which is ad- 
mirable, they imployed them in such sorte, as it was no 
servitude vnto them, but rather a pleasing life. But to 
vnderstand the order of tributes which the Indians paj^ed 
vnto their Lordes, you must knowe, that when the Ynca 
conquered any citties, he divided all the land into three 
partes ; the first was for religion and ceremonies, so as the 
Pachayachachi,^ which is the Creator, and the Sunne, the 
Chuquilla, which is the Thunder, the Pachamama, and the 
dead, and other Guacas and sanctuaries, had every one their 
proper lands, the fruits whereof were spoyled and con- 
sumed in sacrifices, and in the nourishing of ministers and 
priests ; for there were Indians appoynted for every Guaca, 
and sanctuary, and the greatest parte of this revenue was 
spent in Cusco, where was the vniversall and generall sanc- 
tuarie, and the rest in that cittie where it was gathered ; 
for that after the imitation of Cusco, there were in every 
Citie, Guacas, and Oratories of the same order, and with 
the some functions, which were served after the same 

1 Teacher of the World 


manner and ceremonies to that of Cusco, which is an admi- 
rable thing, and they have found it by proofe in above a 
hundred townes, some of them distant above two hundred 
leagues from Cusco. That which they sowed or reapt vpon 
their land, was put into houses, as granaries, or store-houses, 
built for that effect, and this was a great parte of the Tribute 
which the Indians payed. I can not say how much this 
parte amounted vnto, for that it was greater in some partes 
than in other, and in some places it was in a manner all ; 
and this parte was the first they put to profite. The second 
parte of these lands and inheritances was for the Ynca, 
wherewith he and his householde were entertained, with his 
kinsfolks, noblemen, garrisons and souldiers. And therefore 
it was the greatest portion of these tributes, as it appeareth 
by the quantity of golde, silver, and other tributes, which 
were in houses appoynted for that purpose, being longer 
and larger than those where they keepe the revenues of the 
Guacas. They brought this tribute very carefully to Cusco, 
or vnto such places where it was needefuU for the souldiers, 
and when there was store, they kept it tenne or twelve yeares, 
vntill a time of necessitie. The Indians tilled and put to 
profite the Yncas lands, next to those of the Guacas ; during 
which time they lived and were nourished at the charges of 
the Ynca, of the Sunne, or of the Guacas, according to the 
land they laboured. And the olde men, women, and sicke 
folkes were reserved and exempt from this tribute, and 
although whatsoever they gathered vpon those lands were 
for the Ynca, the Sunne, or the Guacas, yet the property 
appertayned vnto the Indians and their successors. The 
third parte of these landes were given by the Ynca for the 
comminaltie, and they have not yet discovered whether this 
portion were greater or lesse than that of the Ynca or 
Guacas. It is most certaine they had a care and regarde that 
it should be sufficient for the nourishment of the people. 
No particular man possessed any thing proper to himself of 

E K 2 

Lib. vr. 

Lin. VI. 


this third portion, neither did the Indians ever possesse 
any, if it were not hy speciall grace from the Ynca ; and 
yet might it not be engaged nor divided amongest his 
heires. They every yeare divided these landes of the com- 
minaltie, in giving to every one that which was needful for 
the nourishment of their persons and families. And as the 
familie increased or diminished^ so did they encrease or 
decrease his portion^ for there were measures appoynted for 
every person. The Indians payed no tribute of that which 
was apportioned vnto them ; for all their tribute was to till 
and keepe in good order the landes of the Ynca, and the 
Guacas, and to lay the fruits thereof in their store-houses. 
When the yeare was barren, they gave of these fruits thus 
reserved to the needy, for that there is alwayes supera- 
boundance. The Ynca did likewise make distribution of 
the cattell as of the landes, which was to number and divide 
them ; then to appoynt the pastures and limites, for the 
cattell belonging to the Guacas, and to the Ynca, and to 
everie Towne; and therefore one portion of their revenues 
was for religion, another for the Ynca, and the third for the 
Indians themselves. The like order was observed among 
the hunters, being forbidden to take or kill any females. 
The flocks of the Yncas and Guacas were in great numbers 
and very fruitfull; for this cause they called them Capacllama; 
but those of the common and publike, were few in number 
and of small valew, and therefore they called them Huaccha- 
llama.^ The Ynca took great care for the preservation of 
cattell, for that it hath beene, and is yet, all the wealth of 
the Countrey, and as it is sayd, they did neither sacrifice 
any females, nor kill them, neither did they take them when 
they hunted. If the mange or the scurvie, which they call 
Carachi, take any beast, they were presently commaunded 
to bury it quicke, lest it should infect others. They did 
sheare their cattell in their season, and distributed to every 
9 Ccapac, rich ; Huaccha^ poor. 


one to spinne and weave stufies for the service of bis familie. ^^^ '^^ 
They had searchers to examine if they did employ them- 
selves in these workes, and to punish the negligent. They 
made stuffes of the wool! of the Yucas cattell, for him and 
for his familv, one sorte verv fine, which thev called Cumbi, 
and another grosser, which they likewise called Abasca.^ 
There was no certaine number of these stufies and orarments 
appointed, but what was delivered to every one. The wooU 
that remayned was put into the storehouses, whereof the 
Spaniards found them ful, and with all other things neces- 
sary for the life of man. There are few men of iudgement 
but doe admire at so excellent and well settled a governe- 
ment, seeing the Indians (being neyther religious, nor 
christians) maintained after their manner, this perfection, 
nor to holde any private property, and to provide for all 
necessities, also maintaining with such aboundance matters 
of religion, and that wliich concerned their King and Lord. 

Chap. xvi. — Of arts and offices lohich the Indians did 


The Indians of Peru had one perfection, which was to 
teach their young children all artes and occupations neces- 
sary for the life of man ; for that there were no particular 
ti'ades-men, as amongst vs, taylors, shoemakers, weavers, 
and the rest, but evervone learned what was needefull for 
their persons and houses, and provided for themselves. All 
coulde weave and make their garments, and therefore the 
Ynca by furnishing them with wooll, gave them clothes. 
Every man could till the ground, and put it to profite, with- 
out hyring of any labourers. All built their owne houses, 
and the women vnderstoode most, they were not bred vppe 
in delights, but served their husbands carefully. Other arts 
and trades wliich were not ordinary and common for the life 

» Ana^ca^ cotirse cloth. 


Lib. VI. of man, had their proper companies and workmen, as gold- 
smiths, painters, potters, watermen, and players of instru- 
ments. There were also weavers and workemen for exqui- 
site workes, which the noblemen vsed : but the common 
people, as hath beene said, had in their houses all things 
necessary, having no need to buy. This continues to this 
day, so as they have no need one of another for things 
necessary : touching his person and famil}^, as shoes and 
garments, and for their house, to sowe and reape, and to 
make yron woorkes, and necessary instruments. The Indians 
heerein doe imitate the institutions of the ancient monks, 
whereof is intreated in the lives of the Fathers. In trueth it 
is a people not greatly covetous, nor curious, so as they are 
contented to passe their time quietly, and without doubt, if 
they made choise of tbis manner of life, by election, and not 
by custome or nature, we may say that it was a life of great 
perfection, being apt to receive the doctrine of the holy 
Gospel, so contrary an enimy to pride, covetousness, and 
delights. But the preachers give not alwayes good example, 
according to the doctrine they preach to the Indians. It is 
woorthy observation, although the Indians be simple in their 
manner and habites, yet do wee see great diversitio 
amongest the provinces, especially in the attire of their 
head, for in some places they carried a long piece of cloth 
which went often about, in some places a large piece of cloth, 
which went but once about, in some parts as it were little 
morters or hattes, in some others as it were high and round 
bonets, and some like the bottome of sacks, with a thousand 
other differences. They had a straight and inviolable lawe, 
that no man might change the fashion of the garments of 
his province, althougb hee went to live in another. This 
the Ynca beld to be of great importance for the order and 
good governement of his realme, and they doe observe it to 
this day, though not with so great a care as they were 


Chap. xvti. — Of the Posts and Ghasc[uis the Indians 

did' vse. 

There were many Posts and couriers whicli the Ynca i^i^- ^i. 
maintained throughout his realme^ whom they called Chas- 
quisj and they carried commaundements to the Governours, 
and returned their advises and advertisements to the Court. 
These Chasquis were placed at every topu, which was a 
league and a halfe one from an other in two small houses^ 
where were foure Indians. These were furnished by different 
districts, and changed monthly. Having received the packet 
or message,, they ranne with all their force vntill they had 
delivered it to the other Chasquis, such as were to runne 
being ready and watchfull. They ran fifty leagues in a day 
and nighty although the greatest parte of that countrey be 
very rough. They served also to carry such things as the 
Ynca desired to have with speede. Therefore they had always 
sea-fish in Cusco^ of two dayes old or little more^ although it 
were above a hundred leagues off. Since the Spaniardes 
entred, they have vsed of these Chasquis in time of seditions, 
whereof there was great need. Don Martin/ the Viceroy, 
appoynted ordinary posts at every foure leagues, to carry 
and recarry despatches, which were very necessary in this 
realme, though they run not so sv^^iftly as the auntients did, 
neither are there so many, yet they are well payed, and 
serve as the ordinaries of Spaine, delivering letters, which 
they each carry foure or five leagues. 

Chap, xviii. — Of the iustice, laiues, and punishments ivhich the 
Yncas have established, and of their marriages. 

Even as such as had done any good service in warre, or 
in the governement of the common-weale, were honoured 

' Don Martin Henriquez. 


Lib. VI. Q^^^ recompensed with publike charges, with lands given 
them in proper, with armes and titles of honour, and in 
marrying wives of the Yncas linage, even so they gave 
severe punishments to such as were disobedient and offend- 
ers. They punished murther, theft, and adultery, with 
death, and such as committed incest with ascendants or de- 
scendants in direct line, were likewise punished with death. 
But they held it no adultery to have many wives or con- 
cubines, neyther were the women subject to the punishment 
of death, being found with any other, but onely she that 
was the true and lawfull wife, with whome they contracted 
marriage ; for they had but one whome they did wed and 
receive with a particular solempnitie and ceremony, which 
was in this maner : the bridegroome went to the bride^s 
house, and led her from thence with him, having first put 
an otoja'^ vppon her foote. They call the shooe which they 
vse in those partes, otoja, beiug open like to the Francis- 
can Friars. If the bride were a mayde, her otoja was of 
wooll, but if she were not, it was of reedes. All his other 
wives and concubines did honour and serve this as the law- 
ful wife, who alone, after the decease of her husband, caried 
a mourning weed of blacke, for the space of a yeare ; 
neither did she marry vntil that time were past ; and 
commonly she was yonger than her husband. The Ynca 
himselfe, with his own hand, gave this woman to his 
Governors and Captains ; and the Governors or Caci- 
ques assembled all the young men and ma3^des, in 
one place of the City, where they gave to everyone his 
wife with the aforesaid ceremony, in putting on the otoja, 
and in this manner they contracted their mariiages. If this 
woman were found with any other man than her husband, 
shoe was punished with death, and the adulterer likewise : 
and although the husband pardoned them, yet were they 
punished, although dispensed withall froui death. They 

' Usuta, a sandal. 


inflicted the like punishment on him that did commit ^^^- '^^• 
incest with his mother, grandmother, daughter, or grand- 
childe : for it was not prohibited for them to marry together, 
or to have of their other kinsfolkes for concubines ; onely 
the first degree was forbidden. Neither did they allow the 
brother to have the company of his sister, wherein they of 
Peru were very much deceived, beleeving that the Yncas 
and noble men might lawfully contract marriage with their 
sisters, yea, by father and mother : for in trueth it hath 
beene alwayes helde vnlawfull among the Indians, and for- 
bidden to contract in the first degree ; which continued 
vntill the time of Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, father to Guayna- 
capa, and grandfather to Atahualpa, at such time as the 
Spaniards entered Peru, for that Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, was 
the first that brake this custome, marrying with Mamaocllo, 
his sister by the father's side, decreeing that the Yncas 
might marry with their sisters by the father's side, and no 

This he did, and by that marriage he had Guaynacapa,^ 
and a daughter called Coya Cusilimay. Finding himselfe at 
the poynt of death, he commaunded his children, by father 
and mother, to marry together, and gave permission to the 
noble men of his country, to marrie with their sisters by 
the fathers side. And for that this marriage was vnlawfal, 
and against the lawe of nature, God would bring to an end 
this kingdome of the Ynca, during the raigne of Huascar 
Ynca, and Atahualpa Ynca, which was the fruite that sprang 
from this marriage. Whoso will more exactly vnderstand 
the manner of marriages among the Indians of Peru, lette 
him reade the treatise Polo hath written, at the request of Don 
leronimo Loaifa, Archbishop of the city of the Kings : which 
Polo made a very curious search, as he hath doone of divers 
other things at the Indies. ^.I.he which importes much to be 
knowne to avoyde the errour and inconveniences where into 

^ Huayna Ccapac. 


Lib. VI. many fall (which know not which is the lawfull wife or the 
concubine among the Indians) causing the Indian that is 
baptized to marry with his concubine^ leaving the lawfull 
wife : thereby also wee may see the small reason some have 
had, that pretended to say^ that wee ought to ratifie the 
marriage of those that were baptized, although they were 
brother and sister. The contrary hath beene determined by 
the provinciall Synode of Lyma, with much reason, seeing 
among the Indians themselves this kind of marriage is vn- 

Chap. xix. — Of the Oviginall of the Yncas, Lords of Peru, 
with their Conquests and Victories. 

By the commandement of Don Philip the Catholike 
King, they have made the most diligent and exact search 
that could be, of the beginning, customes, and priviledges 
of the Yncas, the which was not so perfectly done as was 
desired, for that the Indians had no written recordes; yet 
they have recovered that which I shall write by meanes of 
their Quippos and registers. First, there was not in Peru 
in olde time, any King or Lord to whome all obeyed, but 
they were comminalties, as at this day there be in the 
realme of Chile, and in a maner, in all the Provinces 
which the Spaniards have conquered in those west- 
erne Indies, except the realme of Mexico. You must 
therefore understand that they have found three maner of 
governments at the Indies. The first and best was a 
Monarchic, as that of the Yncas, and of MoteQuma, although 
for the most part they were tyrannous. The second was of 
Comminalties, where they were governed by the advice 
and authoritie of many, which are as it were Counsellors. 
These in time of warre made choice of a Captaine, to whome 
a whole Nation or Province did obey; and in time of peace 
every Towne or Comminaltie did rule and governe them- 


selves, having some chiefe men whom the vulgar did re- ^^^- ^'^^ 
spect, and sometimes, though not often, some of them 
assemble together about matters of importance to consult 
what they should thinke necessary. The thirde kinde of 
government is altogether barbarous, composed of Indians 
without law, without King, and without any certaine place 
of abode, but go in troupes like savage beasts. As farre 
as I can conceive, the first inhabitants of the Indies were 
of this kinde, as at this day a great part of the Bresillians, 
Chiriguanas, Chunchos, Yscaycingas, Pilco^ones, and the 
greatest part of the Floridians, and all the Chichimecos in 
New Spaine. Of this kind the other sort of government by 
Comminalfcies was framed by the industrie and wisedome of 
some amongst them, in which there is some more order, 
holding a more staied place, as at this day those of Arau- 
cano, and of Tucapel in Chile, and in the new kingdome . 
of Granada, the Moscas, and the Otomites in New Spaine; 
and in all these there is lesse fiercenes and incivilitie, and 
much more quiet then in the rest. Of this kinde, by the 
valure and knowledge of some excellent men, grew the 
other government more mightie and potent, which did in- 
stitute a Kingdome and Monarchic. It appeares by their 
registers, that their government hath continued above three 
hundred yeares, but not fully foure, although their Seig- 
niorie for a long time was not above five or six leagues 
compasse about the Citty of Cusco. Their originall and 
beginning was in the valley of Cusco, where by little and 
little they conquered the lands which we called Peru, pass- 
ing beyond Quito, vnto the river of Paste towardes the 
North, stretching even vnto Chile towardes the South, 
which is almost a thousand leagues in length. It extended 
in breadth vnto the South Sea towardes the west, and vnto 
the great champains which are on the other side of the 
Andes, where at this day is to be scene the castell which is 
called the Pucara of the Ynca, the which is a fortresse 


Lib. VI. i3uiit ^qj. i]^q defence of the frontire towards the East. 

The Yncas advanced no farther on that side, for the abound- 

ance of water, marshes, lakes, and rivers, which ranne in 

those partes. These Yncas passed all the other Nations of 

America in policy and government, and much more in 

valour and armes, although the Canaris which were their 

mortall enemies, and favoured the Spaniardes, would never 

confesse it, nor yeelde them this advantage; so as even at 

this day, if they fall into any discourse or comparisons, and 

that they be a little chafed and incensed, they kill one 

another by thousands vpon this quarrel, which are the most 

valiant, as it hath happened in Cusco. The practice and 

meanes which the Yncas had to make themselves Lords of 

all this Countries was in faining that since the generall 

deluge, whereof all the Indians have knowledge, the world 

had beene preserved, restored, and peopled by these Yncas, 

and that seven of them came foorth of the cave of Pacari- 

tambo, by reason whereof, all other men owed them tribute 

and vassalage, as their progenitors. Besides, they said 

and affirmed, that they alone held the true religion, and 

knew how God should be served and honoured; and for this 

cause they should instruct all men. It is a strange thing 

the ground they give to their customes and ceremonies. 

There were in Cusco above foure hundred Oratories, as in a 

holy land, and all places were filled with their mysteries. 

As they continued in the conquests of Provinces, so they 

brought in the like ceremonies and customes. In all this 

realm e the chiefe idol they did worship was Yiracocha 

Pachayachachic,^ which signifies the Creator of the world, 

and after him the Sunne. And therefore they said, that 

the Sunne received his vertue and being from the Creator, 

as the other idolls do, and that they were intercessors to 


1 Teacher of the world ; from Yachani^ I teach. 


Chap. xx. — Of the first Ynca, and his Successors. 

The first man which the Indians report to be the begin- 
ning and first of the Yncas was Mangocapa,^ whom they 
imagine, after the deluge, to have issued forth of the cave 
of Tambo, which is from Cusco about five or six leagues. 
They say that he gave beginning to two principall races or 
families of the Yncas, the one was called Hanancusco, and 
the other Yrincusco : of the first came the Lords which sub- 
dued and governed this Province, and the first whom they 
make the head and stem of this family was called In- 
garoca,^ who founded a family or Ayllu, as they call them, 
named Yicaquirao.^ This, although he were no great 
Lord, was served notwithstanding in vessell of gold and 
silver. And dying, he appointed that all his treasure should 
be implo^^ed for the service of his body, and for the feeding 
of his family. His successor did the like : and this grew 
to a generall custome, as I have said, that no Ynca might 
inherite the goods and house of his predecessor, but did 
build a new pallace. In the time of this Ingaroca the In- 
dians had images of gold ; and to him succeeded Yaguar- 
guaque,* a very old man : they say he was called by this 
name, which signifies teares of blood, for that being once 
vanquished and taken by his enemies, for griefe and sorrow 
he wept blood. He was buried in a village called Paulo, 
which is vpon the way to Omasuyo: he founded a family 
called Ayllu-panaca.^ To him succeeded his soune Viracocha 
Ynca, who was very rich and made much vessell of gold 
and silver : hee founded the linage or family of Cocopanaca. 
Gonzalo Pizarre sought out his body, for the report of the 
great treasure was buried with him, who, after he had cruelly 

^ Manco Ccapac. 2 Ynca Rocca. 

3 Vicaquirau; from quirau^ a cradle. — See G. de la Vega^ ii, p. 531. 
* Yahuar-hiaccac, literally, " Weeping blood". 
^ See G. de la Vega^ ii, p. 531. 

Lib. VI. 

Lib. VI. 


tormented many Indians, in the end he found it in Xaquixa- 
guana, whereas they said Pizarro was afterwards vanquished, 
taken, and executed by the President Gasca. Gonzalo 
Pizarro caused the body of Yiracocha Ynca to be burnt; the 
Indians did affcerwardes take the ashes, the which they pre- 
served in a small vessell, making great sacrifices therevnto, 
vntill Polo did reforme it, and other idolatries which they 
committed vpon the bodies of their other Yncas, the which 
hee suppressed with an admirable diligence and dexterity, 
drawing these bodies out of their hands, being whole, and 
much imbalmed, whereby he extinguished a great number 
of idolatries which they committed. The Indians tooke it 
ill that the Ynca did intltle himselfe Yiracocha, which is 
the name of their God : and he to excuse himselfe, gave 
them to vnderstand that the same Yiracocha appeared to 
him in his dreame, commanding him to take this name. To 
him succeeded Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui, who was a very 
valiant conquerour, a great politician, and an inventor of a 
great part of the traditions and superstitions of their idol- 
atrie, as I will presently shew. 

Chap. xxi. — Of Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui j and what hap- 
pened in his time vnto Guaynacapa. 

Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui reigned seventy yeares, and 
conquered many Countries. The beginning of his conquests 
was by meanes of his eldest brother, who, having held the 
government in his fathers time, and made warre by his con- 
sent, was over-thrown e in a battle against the Chancas, a 
Nation which inhabites the valley of Andahuaylas thirty or 
forty leagues from Cusco, vpon the way to Lima. This 
elder brother thus defeated, retyred himselfe with few men. 
The which Ynca Yupanqui, his yonger brother seeing, de- 
vised and gave forth that, being one day alone and melan- 


cholie, Yiracoclia, the Creator^ spake to him, complaining 
that though he were vniversall Lord and Creator of all 
things, and that hee had made the heaven, the Sunne, the 
world, and men, and that all was vnder his command, yet 
did they not yeelde him the obedience they ought, but 
contrariwise did equally honour and worship the Sunne, 
Thunder, Earth, and other things, which had no virtue but 
what he imparted vnto them : giving him to vnderstand, 
that in heaven where hee was, they called him Yiracocha 
Pachayachachic, which signifieth vniversall Creator ; and to 
the end the Indians might beleeve it to be true, he doubted 
not although he were alone, to raise men vnder this title, 
which should give him victory against the Chancas^ al- 
though they were then victorious, and in great numbers ; 
and make himselfe Lord of those realmes, for that he would 
send him men to his aide invisibly, whereby he prevailed in 
such sort, that vnder this colour and conceit, hee beganne 
to assemble a great number of people, whereof he made a 
mighty armie, with the which he obtayned the victorie, 
making himselfe Lord of the whole Realme, taking the 
government from his father and brother. Then afterwardes 
he conquered and overthrew the Chancas, and from that 
time commanded that Yiracocha should be held for vniver- 
sall Lord, and that the images of the Sunne and Thunder 
should do him reverence and honour. And from that time 
they beganne to set the image of Yiracocha above that of 
the Sunne and Thunder, and the rest of the Guacas. And 
although this Ynca Yupanqui had given farmes, landes, and 
cattell to the Sunne, Thunder, and other Guacas, yet did he 
not dedicate any thing to Yiracocha, saying that he had no 
neede, being vniversall Lord and Creator of all things. He 
informed his souldiers after this absolute victory over the 
Chancas, that it was not they alone that had conquered 
them, but certaine bearded men, whome Yiracocha had sent 
him, and that no man might see them but himselfe, which 

Lib. VI, 


Lib. vr. y^Q^Q siiicG corivcrted into stones ; it was therefore neces- 
sary to seeke them out whome he would know well. By 
this meanes hee gathered together a multitude of stones in 
the mountaines, whereof he made choice^ placing them for 
Guacas, or IdoUs, they worshipped and sacrificed vnto ; they 
called them Pururaucas/ and carried them to the warre with 
great devotion, beleeving for certaine that they had gotten 
the victory by their help. The imagination and fiction of 
this Ynca was of such force, that by the means thereof hee 
obtained goodly victories. He founded the family called 
Ynacapanaca, and made a great image of golde, which hee 
called Ynti-yllapa, which hee placed in a brancard of golde, 
very rich, and of great price, of the which gold the Indians 
took great store to carry to Caxamarca for the libertie and 
ransome of Atahualpa, when the Marquis Francisco Pizarro 
held him prisoner. The Licentiate Polo found in his house 
in Cusco his servants and Mamaconas^ which did service to 
his memorie, and found that the body had beene transported 
from Patallacta to Totocachi_, where the Spaniards have 
since founded the parish of San Bias. This body was so 
whole and preserved with a certaine rosin, that it seemed 
alive; he had his eyes made of a fine cloth of golde, so arti- 
ficially set, as they seemed very naturall eyes ; he had a 
blowe with a stone on the head, which he had received in 
the warres ; he was all grey and hairy, having lost no more 
haire than if hee had died but the same day, although it 
were seaventy and eight yeares since his decease. The 
foresaid Polo sent this body with some others of the Yncas 
to the cittie of Lima, by the viceroyes commaund, which 
was the Marquis of Canete, and the which was very neces- 
sary to root out the idolatry of Cusco. Many Spaniards 
have scene this body with others in the hospital of San 
Andres, which the Marquis built, but they were much de- 
cayed. Don Fehpe Caritopa, who was grand-child or 
* See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 57. 


great grand-childe to this Ynca, affirmed that the treasure ^^^- ^'• 
he left to his family was great, which should be in the 
power of the Yauaconas, Amaru, Titu, and others. To this 
Ynca succeeded Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, to whom his son of 
the same name succeeded, who founded the family called 
Ccapac Sylla,^ 

Chap. xxii. — Of the greatest and most famous Ynca called 


To this latter Ynca succeeded Guaynacapa, which is to 
say, a yoong man, rich and valiant,^ and so was he in trueth 
more than any of his predecessors, or successors. Hee was 
very wise, planting good orders thorowout his whole realrne, 
hee was a bold and resolute man, valiant, and very happy in 
warre. Hee therefore obtained great victories, and extended 
his dominions much farther then all his predecessors had 
done before him ; he died in the realme of Quito, the which 
he had conquered, foure hundred leagues distant from his 
court. The Indians opened him after his decease, leaning 
his heart and entrailes in Quito ; the body was carried to 
Cusco, the which was placed in the renowmed temple of the 
Sunne. We see yet to this day many cawseries, buildings, 
fortresses, and notable workes of this king : hee founded 
the familie of Tumi-bamba. This Guaynacapa was wor- 
shipped of his subjects for a god, being yet alive, as the olde 
men affirme, which was not doone to any of his predeces- 
sours. When he died, they slew a thousand persons of his 
householde, to serve him in the other life, all which died 
willingly for his service, insomuch that many of them offered 
themselves to death, besides such as were appoynted : his 
riches and treasure was admirable. And forasmuch as the 

^ See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 531. 
2 Hiiayna, young ; Ccapac, rich. 

F P 

J-rn. VT. 


Spaniards entred soone after his death, the Indians laboured 
much to conceale all, although a great parte thereof was 
carried to Caxamarca, for the ransome of Atahualpa, his 
Sonne. Some woorthy of credite affirme that he hadde 
above three hundred sonnes and grand-children in Cusco. 
His mother, called Maraaocllo, was much esteemed amongst 
them. Polo sent her body, with that of Guaynacapa, very 
well imbalmed, to Lima, rooting out infinite idolatries. To 
Guaynacapa succeeded in Cusco, a sonne of his called Titu- 
cusi-hualpa. who since was called Huascar Ynca ; his body 
was burned by the captaines of Atahualpa, who was likewise 
Sonne to Guaynacapa, and rebelled in Quito against his 
brother, marching against him with a mighty armie. It 
happened that Quisquis and Chilicuchi, captains to Ata- 
hualpa, took Huascar Ynca in the cittie of Cusco, being 
received for Lord and king (for that hee was the lawful! 
successor) which caused great sorrowe throughout all his 
kingdome, especially in his Court. And as alwayes in their 
necessities they had recourse to sacrifices, finding themselves 
vnable to set their Lord at libertie, as well for the great 
power the captaines had that tooke him, as also, for the 
great army that came with Atahualpa, they resolved (some 
say by the commaundement of this Ynca) to make a great 
and solemne sacrifice to Viracocha Pachayachachic, which 
signifieth vniversall Creator, desiring him, that since they 
coulde not deliver their Lord, he would send men from 
heaven to deliver him from prison. And as they were in 
this great hope, vpon their sacrifice, news came to them, 
that a certaine people come by sea, was landed, and had 
taken Atahualpa prisoner. Heerevpon they called the 
Spaniards Viracochas, beleeving they were men sent from 
God, as well for the small number they were to take 
Atahualpa in Caxamarca, as also, for that it chaunced after 
their sacrifice done to Viracocha, and thereby they began 
to call the Spaniards Viracochas, as they doe at this day. 


And in truth, if we had given them good example, and such i^i^. vi. 
as we ought, these Indians had well applied it, in saying 
they were men sent from God. It is a thing very well 
worthy of consideration, how the greatnesse and providence 
of God, disposed of the entry of our men at Peru, which 
had beene impossible, were not the dissention of the two 
brethren and their partisans, and the great opinion they 
hadde of christians, as of men sent from heaven, bound 
(by the taking of the Indians countrey) to labour to winne 
soules vnto Almightie God. 

Chap, xxiii. — Of the lost Successors Yncas. 

The rest of this subiect is handled at large by the Spanish 
Writers in the histories of the Indies, and for that it is not 
my purpose, I will speake only of the succession of the 
Yncas. Atahualpa being dead in Caxamarca, and Huascar 
in Cusco, and Francisco Pizarro with his people having seised 
on the realme, Mancocapa, sonne to Guaynacapa, besieged 
them in Cusco very straightly ; but in the end he abandoned 
the whole countrey, and retired himselfe to Vilca-bamba, 
where he kept himselfe in the mountaines, by reason of the 
rough and difficult access, and there the successors Yncas 
remained, vntill Amaru, w^ho was taken and executed in the 
market place of Cusco, to the Indians incredible griefe and 
sorrow, seeing iustice doone vpon him publiquely whome 
they helde for their Lorde.^ After which time, they im- 
prisoned others of the lineage of these Yncas. I have 
knowne Don Carlos, grand-childe to Guaynacapa, and sou 
to Paullu, who was baptized, and alwayes favoured the 
Spaniards against Mancocapa his brother. When the Mar- 
quis of Canete governed in this countrey, Sayri Tupac Yuca, 

^ Tupac Amaru, the last Ynca, was beheaded by order of the Viceroy 
Toledo in 1571. 

F F 2 


Lid. VI. -vvent from Vilcabamba and came vpon assurance to the 
citty of Kings, where there was given to him the valley of 
Yucay, and other things, to whom succeeded a daughter of 
his. Beholde the succession which is knowne at this day 
of that great and rich familie of the Yncas, whose raigne 
continued above three hundred yeeres, wherein they reckon 
eleaven successors, vntill it was wholly extinguished. In 
the other linage of Vrincusco, which (as we have said 
before) had his beginning likewise from the first Mancocapa, 
they reckon eight successors in this sort. To Mancocapa 
succeeded Sinchi Rocca, to him Ccapac Yupanqui, to him 
Lloqui Yupanqui, to him Mayta Ccapac, to him Tarco- 
guaman, vnto whome succeeded his sonne, whome they 
name not, to this son succeeded Don luan Tambo, Mayta- 
panaqa. This sufficeth for the originall and succession of 
the Yncas, that governed the land of Peru, with that that 
I have spoken of their lawes, governement, and manner of 

Chap. xxiv. — Of the manner of the Mexicaines common-weale. 

Although you may see by the historie which shall bo 
written of the kingdome, succession, and beginning of the 
Mexicaines, their manor of commonweale and governement, 
yet will I speake briefly what I shall thinke fitte in generall 
to be most observed ; whereof I will discourse more amply 
in the historie. The first point whereby we may iudge the 
Mexicaine governement to be very politike, is the order 
they had and kept inviolable in the election of their king ; 
for since their first, called Acamapich, vnto their last, which 
was Montequma, the second of that name, there came none 
to the crown e by right of succession, but by a lawfull nomi- 
nation and election. This election in the beginning was by 

> This name is net in the lists of other authoi-s. 


the voyce of the commons, although the chiefe men managed ^^^' ^^• 
it. Since in the time of Iscoatl the fourth king, by the 
advise and order of a wise and valiant man, called Tlacael, 
there were foure certayne Electours appoynted^ which (with 
two lordes or kings subiect to the Mexicaine, the one of 
Tescuco and the other of Tacuba) had power to make this 
election. They did commonly choose yoong men for their 
kings, because they went alwayes to the warres, and this 
was in a manner the chiefe cause why they desired them so. 
They had a speciall regard that they shoulde be fit for the 
warres^ and take delight and glory therein. After the elec- 
tion they made twoo kindes of feasts_, the one in taking 
possession of the royall estate, for the which they went to 
the Temple^ making great ceremonies and sacrifices vppon 
the harth, called Divine, where there was a continuall fire 
before the altare of the idoll^ and after some Rhetoritians 
practised therein, made many orations and speeches. The 
other feast, and the most solemne, was at his coronation, 
for the which he must first overcome in battell, and bring a 
certaine number of captives, which they must sacrifice to 
their gods ; he entred in triumph with great pompe, making 
him a solemne reception, as well they of the Temple, who 
went all in procession, sounding on sundry sortes of instru- 
ments, giving incense^ and singing like secular men, as also 
the courtiers, who came forth with their devises to receive 
the victorious king. The Crowne or royall ensigne was 
before like to a Myter, and behinde it was cut, so as it was 
not round, for the fore parte was higher, and did rise like a 
poynt. The king of Tescuco had the privilege to crown 
the king of Mexico. The Mexicaines have beene very 
duetifull and loyall vnto their kings; and, it hath not beene 
knowne that they have practised any treason against them; 
onely their Histories report, that they sought to poison their 
king called Ti^occi, being a coward, and of small account ; 
but it is not found that there hath beene any dissentions or 


Lib. VI, partialities amongest them for ambition, thogh it be an 
ordinary thing in Comminalties ; but contrariwise they 
reporte, as you shall see heereafter, that a man, the best of 
the Mexicaiues, refused this realme, seeming vnto him to be 
very expedient for the Common-weale to have an other 
king. In the beginning, v^^hen the Mexicaines were but 
poore and weake, the kings were very moderate in their 
expenses and in their Court, but as they increased in power 
they increased hkewise in pompe and state, vntill they 
came to the greatnesse of Montezuma, who if hee had 
had no other thing but his house of beasts and birds, it 
had beene a prowde thing, the like whereof hath not beene 
scene ; for there was in this house all sortes of fish, birds, 
and beasts, as in an other Noahs Arke, for sea fish there 
were pooles of salt-water, and for river fish lakes of fresh- 
water, birds that do prey were fedde, and likewise wilde 
beasts in great aboundaunce ; there were very many Indians 
imployed for the keeping of these beasts ; and when he 
found an impossibilitie to nourish any sort of fish, fowle, or 
wilde beast, hee caused the image or likenesse to be made, 
richly cutte in pretious stones, silver, or golde, in marble, or 
in stone ; and for all sortes of entertainements, hee had his 
severall houses and pallaces, some of pleasure, others of 
sorrowe and mourning, and others to treate of the affairs 
of the realme. There was in this pallace many chambers, 
according to the qualitie of noble men that served him, 
with a strange order and distinction. 

Chap. xxv. — Of the titles and dignities the Indians vsed. 

The Mexicaines have beene very curious to divide the 
degrees and dignities amongst the Noble men and Lords, 
that they might distinguish them to whom they were to 
give the greatest honour. The dignity of these foure 


Electors was the greatest, and most honourable next to the ^'"*- '^^• 
king, and they were chosen presently after the kings elec- 
tion. They were commonly brothers, or very neare kinsmen 
to the king, and were called Tlacohecalcatl, which signifies 
prince of darts, the which they cast, being a kind of armes 
they vse much. The next dignitie to this were those they 
doe call Tlacatecatl, which is to say circumcisers or cutters 
of men. The third dignitie were of those which they 
called Ezuahuacatl, which signifies a sheader of blood. All 
the which Titles and Dignities were exercised by men of 
warre. There was another, a fourth, intituled, Tlilancalqui, 
which is as much to say, as Lord of the blacke house, or of 
darkenesse, by reason of certaine incke wherewith the 
Priests annoynted themselves, and did serve in their idola- 
tries. All these foure dignities were of the great Counsell, 
without whose advise the king might not doe anything of 
importance; and the king being dead they were to choose 
another in his place out of one of those foure dignities. 
Besides these, there were other Counsells and Audiences, 
and some say there were as many as in Spaine, and that 
there were divers seates and iurisdictions, with their Coun- 
sellors and ludges of the Court, and others that were vnder 
them, as Corregidors, chiefe ludges, captaines of Justice, 
Lieutenants, and others, which were yet inferiour to these, 
with a very goodly order. All which depended on the foure 
first Princes that assisted the king. These foure onely had 
authority and power to condemne to death, and the rest 
sent them instructions of the sentences they had given. 
By meanes whereof they gave the king to vnderstand what 
had passed in his E-ealme. 

There was a good order and settled policie for the re- 
venues of the Crowne, for there were officers divided 
throughout all the provinces, as Receivers and Treasurers, 
which received the Tributes and royall revenews. And 
they carried the Tribute to the Court, at the least every 


Lib. VI, tnoneth ; which Tribute was of all things that doe growe or 
iugender on the land, or in the water, as well of iewells and 
apparrellj as of meat. They were very carefull for the well 
ordering of that which concerned their religion, superstition, 
and idolatries, : and for this occasion there were a great 
number of Ministers, to whom charge was given to teach 
the people the custome and ceremonies of their Lawe. 
Heerevppon one day a christian Priest made his complaint 
that the Indians were no good Christians, and did not 
profite in the lawe of God ; an olde Indian answered him 
ver}7 well to the purpose in these terms ; '^ Let the Priest, 
saide hee, imploy as much care and diligence to make the 
Indians christians, as the ministers of Idolles did to teach 
them their ceremonies ; for with halfe that care they will 
make vs the best christians in the worlde, for that the lawe 
of Jesus Christ is much better ; but the Indians learne it 
not, for want of men to instruct them/' Wherein hee spake 
the very trueth, to our great shame and confusion. 

Chap. xxvi. — How the Mexicaines made Warre, and of their 

Orders of Knighthood, 

The Mexicaines gave the first place of honour to the pro- 
fession of armes, and therefore the Noblemen are their 
chiefe souldiers, and others that were not noble, by their 
valour and reputation gotten in warres, came to dignities 
and honours, so as they were held for noblemen. They gave 
goodly recompences to such as had done valiantly, who 
inioyed priviledges that none else might have, the which 
did much incourage them. Their armes were of rasors of 
sharpe cutting flints, which they set on either side of a 
stafl:e, which was so furious a weapon, as they affirmed that 
with one blow, they would cut off" the necke of a horse; 
They had strange and heavy clubbes, lances fashioned like 


pikeSj and otlier maner of dartes to cast, wherein they were 
very expert; but the greatest part of their combate was 
performed with stones. For defensive armes they had 
Httle rondaches or targets, and some kind of morions or 
head-pieces invironed with feathers. They were clad in the 
skinnes of tigres_, Hons, and other sauage beasts. They 
came presently to hands with the enemie, and were greatly 
practised to runne and wrestle^ for their chief maner of 
combate, was not so much to kill, as to take captives, the 
which they vsed in their sacrifices, as hath beene said. 
Montezuma set knighthood in his highest splendor, ordaining 
certaine militarie orders, as Commanders, with certaine 
markes and ensignes. The most honourable amongest the 
Knightes, were those that carried the crowne of their 
haire, tied with a little red ribband, having a rich plume of 
feathers, from the which, did hang branches of feathers 
vpon their shoulders, and roules of the same. They carried 
so many of these rowles, as they had done worthy deedes in 
warre. The King himselfe was of this order, as may be 
scene in Chapultepec, where MonteQuma and his sonnes 
were attyred with those kindes of feathers, cut in the rocke, 
the which is worthy the sight. There was another order of 
Knighthood, which they called the lions and the tigres, 
the which were commonly the most valiant and most noted 
in warre, they went alwaies with their markes and armories. 
There were other Knightes, as the grey Knightes, the 
which were not so much respected as the rest : they had 
their haire cut round about the eare. They went to the 
war with markes like to the other Knightes, yet they were 
not armed but to the girdle, and the most honourable were 
armed all over. All Knightes might carry golde and silver, 
and weare rich cotton, and use painted and gilt vessel!, 
and carry shooes after their maner : but the common peo- 
ple might vse none but earthen vessel), neyther might they 
carry shooes, nor attyre themselves but in Nequen, the 

Lib. VI. 


Lib. VI. -yvhich IS a grosse stuffe. Every order of these Kiiightes 
had his lodging in the pallace noted with their markes ; the 
first was called the Princes lodging, the second of Eagles, the 
third of Lions and Tigres, and the fourth of the grey 
Knightes. The other common officers were lodged vnder- 
neath in meaner lodgings : if any one lodged out of his 
place, he suffered death. 

Chap, xxvii. — Of the (jreat order and diligence the Mexl- 
caines vsed to instruct their youth. 

There is nothing that gives me more cause to admire, 
nor that T finde more worthy of commendations and me- 
mory, then the order and care the Mexicaines had to nou- 
rish their youth; for they knew well that all the good hope 
of a common weale consisted in the nurture aud institution 
of youth, whereof Plato treates amply in his bookes Do 
Legibus; and for this reason they laboured and tooke paines 
to sequester their children from delights and liberties, which 
are the two plagues of this age, imploying them in honest 
and profitable exercises. For this cause there was in their 
Temples a private house for childeren, as schooles, or col- 
ledges, which was seperate from that of the yong men and 
m aides of the Temple, whereof we have discoursed at large. 
There were in these schooles a great number of children, 
whom their fathers did willingly bring thither, and which 
had teachers and masters to instruct them in all commend- 
able exercises, to be of good behaviour, to respect their 
superiors, to serve and obey them, giving them to this end 
certain precepts and instructions. And to the end they 
might be pleasing to Noblemen, they taught them to sing 
and dance, and did practise them in the exercise of warre, 
some to shoote an arrow, to cast a dart or a staffe burnt at 
the end, and to handle well a target and a sword. They 


suffered them not to sleepe muclij to the end they might ^^^- "^^• 
accustome themselves to labour in their youth, and were 
not men given to delightes. Besides the ordinary number 
of these children, there were in the same colledges other 
children of Lordes and Noblemen, the which were instructed 
more privately. They brought them their meate and ordi- 
nary from their houses, and were recommended to antients 
and old men to have care over them, who continually did 
advise them to be vertuous and to live chastely ; to be 
sober in their diet, to fast, and to march gravely, and with 
measure. They were accustomed to exercise them to tra- 
vell, and in laborious exercises; and when they see them 
instructed in all these things, they did carefully looke into 
their inclination, if they found any one addicted to the war, 
being of sufficient yeares, they sought all occasions to make 
triall of them, sending them to the warre, vnder colour to 
carry victualls and munition to the souldiers, to the end 
they might there see what passed, and the labour they 
suffered. And that they might abandon all feare, they were 
laden with heavy burthens, that shewing their courage 
therein, they might more easily be admitted into the com- 
pany of souldiers. By this meanes it happened that many 
went laden to the Armie and returned Captaines with markes 
of honour. Some of them were so desirous to bee noted, 
as they were eyther taken or slaine; and they held it lesse 
honourable to remaine a prisoner; and, therefore, they 
sought rather to be cut in peeces then to fall captives into 
their enemies hands. See how Noblemens children that 
were inclined to the warres were iraployed. The others 
that had their inclination to matters of the Temple; and to 
speake after our maner, to be Ecclesiastical men, having 
attained to sufficient yeares, they were drawne out of the 
colledge, and placed in the temple in the lodging appointed 
for religious men, and then they gave them the orders of 
Ecclesiasticall men. There had they prelates and masters 


Lib. VI. ^Q teach tbem that which concerned their profession, where 
they should remaine being destined therevnto. These Mexi- 
caines tooke great care to bring vp their children : if at this 
day they would follow this order, in building of houses and 
coUedges for the instruction of youth, without doubt Chris- 
tianitie should florish much amongst the Indians. Some 
godly persons have begunne, and the King with his Coun- 
sell have favored it : but for that it is a matter of no profit, 
they advance little, and proceed coldly. God open our 
eyes, that we may see it to our shame, seeing that we 
Christians do not that v/hich the children of darkenes did 
to their perdition, wherin we forget our duties. 

Chap, xxviii. — Of the Indians feasts and dances. 

Forasmuch as it is a thing which partly dependes of the 
good government of the Common-weale, to have some plaies 
and recreations when time serves ; it shall not be from the 
purpose to relate what the Indians did heerein, especially 
the Mexicaines. We have not discovered any Nation at 
the Indies that live in commonalties, which have not their 
recreations in plaies, dances, and exercises of pleasure. At 
Peru I have seene plaies in manor of combats, where the 
men of both sides were sometimes so chafed that often their 
PucUa (which was the name of this exercise) fell out to be 
dangerous. I have also seene divers sortes of dances, 
wherein they did counterfait and represent certaine trades 
and offices, as sheepherds, laborers, fishers, and hunters, 
and commonly they made all those dances with a very grave 
sound and pase : there were other dances and maskes, 
which they called cuacones, whose actions were pure repre- 
sentations of the divell. There were also men that dance on 
the shoulders one of another, as they do in Portugall, the 
which they call pelas. The greatest part of these dances 


were superstitions and kindes of idolatries : for that they 
honoured their idolls and Guacas in that maner. For this 
reason the Prelates have laboured to take from them these 
dances all they could: but yet they suffer them, for that 
part of them are but sportes of recreation, for alwaies they 
dance after their maner. In these dances they vse sundry 
sortes of instruments, whereof some are like flutes or little 
lutes, others like drummes, and others like shells : but 
commonl}^ they sing all with the voyce, and first one or two 
sing the song, then all the rest answer them. Some of 
these songs were very wittily composed, contayning his- 
tories, and others were full of superstitions, and some were 
meere follies. Our men that have conversed among them 
have laboured to reduce matters of our holy faith to their 
tunes, the which hath profited well : for that they imploy 
whole daies to rehearse and sing them, for the great 
pleasure and content they take in their tunes. They have 
likewise put our compositions of musicke into their lan- 
guage, as Octaves, Songs, and Rondells, the which they 
have very aptly turned, and in truth it is a goodly and very 
necessary meanes to instruct the people. In Peru they 
commonly called dances Taquij in other Provinces Areytos, 
in Mexico Mitotes. There hath not beene in any other 
place any such curiositie of plaies and dances as in New 
Spaine, where at this day we see Indians so excellent 
dancers, as it is admirable. Some dance vpon a cord, some 
vpon a long and straight stake, in a thousand sundrie 
sortes, others with the soles of their feete and their harames 
do handle, cast vp, and receive againe a very heavy blocke, 
which seems incredible but in seeing it. They do make 
many other shewes of their great agilitie in leaping, vault- 
ing, and tumbling, sometimes bearing a great and heavie 
burthen, sometimes enduring blowes able to breake a barre 
of yron. But the most usuall exercise of recreation among 
the Mexicaines is the solemne Mitote, and that is a kinde 

Lib. VI. 

Lib. VI. 


of daunce they held so brave and so honorable, that the 
king himselfe daunced, but not ordinarily, as the king Don 
Pedro of Aragon with the Barber of Valencia. This daunce 
or Mitote was commonly made in the Courts of the Tem- 
ple, and in those of the kings houses, which were more 
spatious. They did place in the midst of the Court two 
instruments, one like to a drumme, and the other like a 
barrell made of one peece, and hollow within, which they 
set vppon the forme of a man, a beast, or vpon a piller. 

These two instruments were so well accorded together, 
that they made a good harmony : and with these instru- 
ments they made many kinds of aires and songs. They 
did all sing and dance to the sound and measure of these 
instrum.ents, with so goodly an order and accord, both of 
their feete and voices, as it was a pleasant thing to beholde. 
In these daunces they made two circles or wheeles, the 
one was in the middest neere to the instruments, wherein 
the Auntients and Noblemen did sing and daunce with a 
softe and slowe motion ; and the other was of the rest of 
the people round about them, but a good distance from the 
first, wherein they daunced two and two more lightly, 
making diverse kindes of pases, with certaine leapes to the 
measure. All which together made a very great circle. 
They attired themselves for these dances with their most 
pretious apparrell and iewelles, every one according to his 
abilitie, holding it for a very honorable thing : for this 
cause they learned these dauDces from their infancie. And 
although the greatest parte of them were doone in honor of 
their Idolles, yet was it not so instituted, as hath bin said, 
but only as a recreation and pastime for the people. There- 
fore it is not convenient to take them quite from the 
Indians, but they must take good heed they mingle not 
their superstitions amongest them. I have scene this Mi- 
tote, in the court of the Church of Tepotzotlan, a village 
seven leagues from Mexico : and, in my opinion, it was a 


good thing to busie the Indians vpon festival! dayes^ seeing ^^^- '*'^- 
they have neede of some recreation : and because it is pub- 
like, and without the prejudice of any other, there is lesse 
inconvenience than in others, which may be done privately 
by themselves, if they tooke away these. We must there- 
fore conclude, following the counsel of pope Gregory, that 
it was very convenient to leave vnto the Indians that 
which they had usually of custom, so as they be not 
mingled nor corrupt with their antient errors, and that 
their feasts and pastimes may be to the honor of God and 
of the Saints, whose feasts they celebrate. This may suf- 
fice in generall of the maners and politike customes of the 
Mexicaines. And as for their beginning, increase, and 
Empire, for that it is an ample matter, and will be pleasant to 
vnderstand from the beginning, we will intreate thereof in 
the Booke following. 


Of the Naturall and Morall Historic of the 


Eccles. i. 

Chap. i. — That it is iirofitable to vnderstand the actes of the 
Indians J especially of the Mexicaines. 

Lib. VII. Every History, wel written, is profitable to the reader : For 
as the Wise man saith, "That which hath bin, is, and that 
which shall be, is that which hath beene/' Humane things 
have much resemblance in themselves, and some growe 
wise by that which happeneth to others. There is no 
Nation, how barbarous so ever, that have not something in 
them good, and woorthy of commendation ; nor Common- 
weale so well ordered, that hath not something blame- 
worthy, and to be controlled. If, therefore, there were 
no other fruite in the Historie and Narration of the 
deedes of the Indians, but this common vtilitie, to be a 
Relation or Historie of things, the which in the effect of 
truth have happened, it deserveth to be received as a profit- 
able thing, neither ought it to be reiected, for that it con- 
cernes the Indians. As we see that those Authors that 
treate of naturall things, write not onely of generous beasts, 
notable and rare plants, and of pretious stones, but also of 
wilde beasts, common hearbes, and base and vulgar stones, 
for that there is alwayes in them some properties worthy 
observation. If, therefore, there were nothing else in this 
Discourse, but that it is a Historie, and no fables nor 
fictions, it were no vnwoorthy subject to be written or read. 


There is yet an other more particular reason^ which is, that ^"' ^"• 
wee ought heerin to esteeme that which is woorthy of 
memorie, both for that it is a Nation little esteemed_, and 
also a subiect different from that of our Europe,, as these 
Nations be, wherein wee should take most pleasure and 
content, to vnderstand the ground of their beginning, their 
manor of life, with their happy and vnliappy adventures. 
And this subiect is not onely pleasant and agreeable, but 
also profitable, especially to such as have the charge to rule 
and governe them ; for the knowledge of their acts invites 
vs to give credite, and dooth partely teach howe they ought 
to be intreated : yea, it takes away much of that common 
and foolish contempt wherein they of Europe holde them, 
supposing that those Nations have no feeling of reason. 
For in trueth wee can not cleere this errour better, than by 
the true report of the actes and deedes of this people. I 
will, therefore, as briefly as I can, intreate of the beginning, 
proceedings, and notable deedes of the Mexicaines, whereby 
wee may know the time and the disposition that the high 
God woulde choose, to send vnto these Nations the light of 
the Gospel of lesus Christ his only sonne our Lord, whome 
I beseech to second our small labour, that it may be to the 
glory of his Divine greatnes, and some profite to these 
people, to whome hee hath imparted the lawe of his holy 

Chap. ii. — Of the ancient Inhabitants of New Spaine, and 
how the Navatlacas came thither. 

The antient and first Inhabitants of those provinces, 
which wee call New Spaine, were men very barbarous and 
savage, which lived onely by hunting, for this reason they 
were called Chichimecas. They did neither sowe nor till the 
ground, neither lived they together ; for all their exercise 

G G 


Lib. VII. YfiX8 to hunt, whereiii they were very expert. They lived in 
the roughest partes of the mountaines beastlike, without any 
pollicie, and they went all naked. They hunted wilde 
beasts^ hares, connies, weezles_, mowles, wilde cattes, and 
birdes, yea vncleane beasts, as snakes, lizards, locusts, and 
wormes, whereon they fed, with some hearbs and rootes. 
They slept in the mountaines, in caves and in bushes, and 
the wives likewise went a hunting with their husbandes, 
leaving their yoong children in a little panier of reeds, tied 
to the boughs of a tree, which desired not to suck vntill 
they were returned from hunting. They had no superiors, 
nor did acknowledge or worship any gods, neyther hadde 
any manner of ceremonies or religion. 

There is yet to this day in New Spaine of this kinde of 
people, which live by their bowes and arrowes, the which 
are very hurtfull, for that they gather together in troupes to 
doe mischiefe, and to robbe : neither can the Spaniards by 
force or cunning reduce them to any poUicie or obedience : 
for having no towns nor places of residence, to fight with 
them, were properly to hunt after savage beasts, which 
scatter and hide themselves in the most rough and covered 
places of the mountaines. Such is their manor of living 
even to this day, in many Provinces of the Indies. In the 
Bookes De frocuranda Indorum salute, they discourse 
chiefly of this sort of Indians, where it is saide that 
they are to be constrained and subiected by some honest 
force, and that it is necessary first to teach them that they 
are men, and then to be Christians. Some will say that 
those in New Spaine, which they call Otomies, were of this 
sort, being commonly poore Indians, inhabiting a rough 
and barren land, and yet they are in good numbers, and 
live together with some order, and such as do know them, 
find them no lesse apt and capable of matters of Christian 
religion, than others which are held to be more rich and 
better governed. Comming, therefore, to our subiect, the 


Chichimecas and Otomies^ which were the first inhabitants ^^^• 
of New Spaine^ for that they did neyther till nor sowe the 
land, they left the best and most fertile of the country 
vnpeopled_, which Nations that came from farre did possess, 
whome they called Navatlacas, for that it was a more civill 
and pollitike Nation ; this word signifies a people that 
speakes well, in respect of other barbarous nations without 
reason. These second peoplers, Navatlacas, came from other 
farre countries, which lie toward the north, where now they 
have discovered a kingdome they call New Mexico. 

There are two provinces in this countrey, the one called 
Aztlan, which is to say a place of Herons : the other 
Tuculhuacan, which signifies a land of such, whose grand- 
fathers were divine. The Inhabitants of these provinces 
have their houses, their lands tilled, gods, customes, and 
ceremonies, with like order and governement to the Navat- 
lacas, and are divided into seven Tribes or Nations : and 
for that they have a custome in this province, that every 
one of these lineages hath his place and private territory. 
The Navatlacas paint their beginning and first territory in 
figure of a cave, and say that they came forth of seven 
caves to come and people the land of Mexico, whereof they 
make mention in their Historie, where they paint seven 
caves and men comming forth of them. By the computa- 
tion of their bookes, it is above eight hundred yeeres since 
these Navatlacas came foorth of their country, reducing 
which to our accompt, was about the yeere of our Lord 720, 
when they left their country to come to Mexico, they stayed 
foure score years vpon the way ; and the cause of this their 
long stay in their voyage, was, that their gods (which with- 
out doubt were divells, and spake visibly vnto them) had 
perswaded them to seeke new lands that had certaine signes. 
And therefore they came discovering the whole land, to 
search for these tokens which their Idolls had given them j 
and in places where they found any good dwellings, they 

G G 2 


Lib. vTi. peopled it, and laboured the land, and as they discovered 
better countries, they left those which they had first peopled, 
leaving still some, especially the aged, sick folkes, and the 
weary ; yea, they did plant and build there, whereof we see 
the remainders at this day. In the way where they passed, 
they spent fourescore yeares in this manner of leasurely 
travell, the which they might have done in a moneth. By 
this meanes they entred the land of Mexico in the yeare 
nine hundred and two, after our computation. 

Chap. hi. — How the six Lineages of Navatlacas peopled the 

land of Mexico. 

These seven Lineages I have spoken of, came not forth 
all together : the first were the Suchimilcos, which signifie 
a Nation of the seedes of flowers. Those peopled the bankes 
of the great lake of Mexico towards the South, and did 
build a cittie of their name, and many villages. Long time 
after came they of the second lineage called Chalcas, which 
signifies people of mouthes, who also built a cittie of their 
name, dividing their limmits and territories with the Suchi- 
milcos. The third were the Tepanecas, which signifies 
people of the bridge : they did inhabite vpon the banke of 
the lake towards the West, and they increased so, as they 
called the chiefe and Metropolitane of their Province, 
Azcapuzalco, which is to say, an Ants nest, and they con- 
tinued long time mighty. After them came those that 
peopled Tezcuco, which be those of Culhua, which is to say, 
a crooked people : for that in their Countrey there was a 
mountaine much bending.^ And in this sort this lake was 
invironed with these foure Nations, these inhabiting on the 
East, and the Tepanecas on the North. These of Tezcuco, 
were held for great Courtiers, for their tongue and pronun- 
tiation is very sweete and pleasant. Then arrived the 

1 " Cerro muy encorvaclo." 


TIatluicas, which signifies men of the Sierra or mountaine. ^^^- ^"• 
Those were the most rude and grosse of all the rest, who 
finding all the plaines about the lake possessed even vnto 
the Sierra, they passed to the other side of the mountaine, 
where they found a very fertile, spatious and warme coun- 
trey, where they built many great villages, calling the 
Metropolitane of their province, Quahunahuac, which is as 
much to say, as a place that sounds the voice of an Eagle, 
which our common people call by corruption, Quernavaca, 
and at this day they call this province the Marquisate. Those 
of the sixt generation, which are the Tlascaltecas, which is 
to say men of bread, passed the mountaine towards the east, 
crossing all the Sierra Nevada, where that famous Vulcan 
is betwixt Mexico and the Ciudad de los Angeles, where 
they did finde a good country, making many buildings. 
They built many townes and citties, whereof the Metropol- 
itane was called by their name Tlascala. This is the nation 
which favoured the Spaniards at their entrie, by whose help 
they did winne this country, and therefore to this day 
they pay no tribute but enioy a generall exemption. 
When all these Nations peopled these countries, the Chi- 
chimecas being the antient inhabitants, made no resistance, 
but fledde, and as people amazed they hid themselves in the 
most obscure of the rockes. But those that inhabited on 
th' other side of the mountaine where the Tlascaltecas had 
planted themselves, did not suffer them in quiet, as the rest 
of the Chichimecas had done, but they put themselves in 
defence to preserve their country, and being giants, as the 
Histories report, they sought to expell the last comers, but 
they were vanquished by the policy of the Tlascaltecas, 
who counterfeiting a peace with them, they invited them 
to a great banquet, and when they were busiest in their 
drunkennes, there were some laide in ambush, v/ho 
secretly stole away their weapons, which were great clubbes, 
targets, swords of wood, and other such armes. Then did they 


Lib. VII. sodainely set vpon them, and the Chiclaimecas seeking to 
defend themselves, they did want their armes, so as they 
fled to the mountaines and forrests adioyning, where they 
pulled downe trees as if they had beene stalkes of lettices. 
But, in the end, the Tlascaltecas being armed, and march- 
ing in order, they defeated all the giants, not leaving one 
alive. We must not holde this of the giants to be strange 
or a fable; for, at this day, we finde dead mens bones of an 
incredible bignes. 

When I was in Mexico, in the yeare of our Lorde one 
thousand five hundred eighty sixe, they found one of those 
giants buried in one of our farmes, which we call lesus del 
Monte, of whom they brought a tooth to be seene, which 
(without augmenting) was as big as the fist of a man ; and, 
according to this, all the rest was proportionable, which I 
saw and admired at his deformed greatnes. The Tlascalte- 
cas, by this victory, remained peaceable, and so did the 
rest of the lineages. The six lineages did alwayes entertaine 
amitie together, marrying their children one with another, 
and dividing their limites quietly : then they studied with 
an emulation to encrease and beautifie their common-weale. 
The barbarous Chichimecas, seeing what passed, beganne 
to vse some government, and to apparrell themselves, being 
ashamed of what had passed : for till then they had no 
shame. And having abandoned feare by their communica- 
tion with these other people, they beganne to learne many 
things of them, building small cottages, having some polHcie 
and government. They did also choose Lordes, whom they 
did acknowledge for their superiors, by meanes whereof 
they did in a manner quite abandon this brutish life, yet 
did they alwayes continue in the . Mountaines divided from 
the rest. 

Notwithstanding, I hold it for certaine that this feare 
hath grown e from other Nations and Provinces of the In- 
dies, who at the first were savage men, who living onely by 


hunting, piercing the rockie and rough countries^ discover- 
ing a new world, the inhabitants whereof were almost like 
savage beasts, without coverings or houses, without tilled 
landes, without cattell, without King, Law, God, or Reason. 
Since others, seeking better and new lands, inhabited this 
fertile Countrey, planting pollitike order and a kinde of 
common-weale, although it were very barbarous. After the 
same men, or other Nations, that had more vnderstanding 
then the rest, laboured to subdue and oppresse the lesse 
mighty, establishing Realmes and great Empires. So it 
happened in Mexico, at Peru, and in some partes where 
they finde Citties and Common-weales planted among these 
Barbarians. That which confirmes me in my opinion 
(whereof I have amply discoursed in the first booke), that 
the first inhabitants of the West Indies came by land, and 
so by consequence that the first continent of the Indies 
ioynes with that of Asia, Europe, and Affrike, and the new 
world with the old, although they have not yet discovered 
any countrey that toucheth and ioynes with the other world ; 
or if there be any sea betwixt the two, it is so narrow that 
wilde beasts may easily swim over, and men in small boates. 
But leaving this Philosophie, let vs returne to our history. 

Lib. VII. 

Chap. iv. — Of the Mexicaines de^artuTGj of their iourney and 
peopling the Province of Mechoacan. 

Three hundred and two yeares after, the former two 
lineages had left their Country to inhabite New Spaine, the 
Country being now well peopled and reduced to some forme 
of government. Those of the seventh cave or line arrived, 
which is the Mexicaine Nation, the which, like vnto the rest, 
left the Province of Aztlan and Teuculhuacan, a pollitike, 
courtlike, and warlike Nation. They did worship the Idoll 
Vitzilipuztli, whereof ample mention hath beene made, and 
the divell that was in this idoll spake, and governed this 


Lib. VII. jv^ation easily. This idoll commanded them to leave their 
Country, promising to make them Princes and Lords over 
all the Provinces which the other six Nations did possesse, 
that hee would give them a land abounding with gold, 
silver, pretious stones, feathers, and rich mantells : where- 
vpon they went forth, carrying their idoll with, them in a 
coffer of reedes, supported by foure of their principall 
priests, with whome he did talke and reveale vnto them in 
secret, the successe of their way and voyage, advising them 
of what should happen. He likewise gave them lawes, and 
taught them the customes, ceremonies, and sacrifices they 
should observe. They did not advance nor moove without 
commandement from this idoll. He gave them notice when 
to march and when to stay in any place, wherein they wholy 
obeyed him. The first thing they did wheresoever they 
came was to build a house or tabernacle for their false god, 
which they set alwaies in the middest of their Campe, and 
there placed the Arke vppon an altare, in the same manner 
as they have vsed in the holy Christian Church. This done, 
they sowed their land for bread and pulses, which they vsed: 
and they were so addicted to the obedience of their god, 
that if he commanded them to gather, they gathered ; but 
if he commanded them to raise their campe, all was left 
there for the nourishment of the aged, sicke, and wearie, 
which they left purposely from place to place, that they 
might people it, pretending by this meanes that all the land 
should remaine inhabited by their Nation. This going 
forth and peregrination of the Mexicaines will happily 
seeme like to that of Egypt, and to the way which the 
children of Israeli made, seeing that they, as well as those, 
were warned to go forth and to seeke the land of promise, 
and both the one and the other carried their god for their 
guide, consulted with the arke and made him a tabernacle, 
and he advised them, giving them lawes and ceremonies, 
and both the one and the other spake many yeares in their 


voyage to their promised land^ where we observe the resem- 
blance of many other things^ as the histories of the Mexi- 
caines do report, and the holy scriptures testifie of the 
Israelites. And without doubt it is a true thing, that the 
Divell, the prince of pride, hath laboured by the supersti- 
tions of this Nation, to counterfaite and imitate that which 
the most high God did with this Nation : for, as is said be- 
fore, Satan hath a strange desire to compare and make 
himselfe equal with God : so as this mortall enemy hath 
pretended falsely to vsurpe what communication and fami- 
liaritie he hath pleased with men. Was there ever divell 
found so familiarly conversant with men as this divell Vitzi- 
lipuztli. We may wel iudge what he was, for that there 
was never scene nor heard speake of customes more super- 
stitious, nor sacrifices more cruel and inhumane, than those 
which he taught them. To conclude, they were invented 
by the enemy of mankiude. The chiefe and Captaine 
whome they followed was called Mexi, whence came the 
name of Mexico, and of the Mexicaine Nation. This people 
marching thus at leisure, as the other six Nations had done, 
peopling and tilling the land in divers partes, whereof there 
is yet some sliewes and mines : and after they had endured 
many travells and dangers, in the end they came to the 
Province of Mechoacan, which is as mucli to say, a land 
of fish, for there is great abundance in goodly great lakes, 
where, contenting themselves with the situation and tem- 
perature of the ground, they resolved to stay there. Yet, 
having consulted with their idoll vpon this point, and find- 
ing him vnwilling, they demanded license to leave some of 
their men to people so good a land, the which he granted, 
teaching them the meanes how to do it, which was, that 
when the men and women should be entred into a goodly 
lake called Pazcuaro to bathe themselves, those which re- 
mained on land should steale away all their clothes, and 
then secretly raise their campe and depart without any 

Lib. VII. 


Lib. vrr. l)ruite_, the which was effected^ and the rest which dreamt 
not of this deceit (for the pleasure they tooke in bathing), 
comming forth and finding themselves spoiled of their gar- 
ments, and thus mocked and left by their companions, they 
remained discontented and vexed therewith : so as, to make 
shew of the hatred they had conceived against them, they 
say that they changed their manor of life and their language. 
At the least, it is most certaine that the Mechoacans have 
been alwaies enemies to the Mexicaines, and therefore they 
came to congratulate the Marquis Del Yalle,^ after his 
victory obtained when he had conquered Mexico. 

Chap. v. — Of that ivMch happened in Malinalco, Tithij and 

^71 Chajpultepec, 

From Mechoacan to Mexico are above fifty leagues, and 
vpon the way is Malinalco, where it happened that com- 
plaining to their idoll of a woman that was a notable 
witch, which came in their company carrying the name of a 
sister to their god, for that with her wicked artes she did 
them much harme, pretending by certaine meanes to be 
worshipped of them as their goddesse : the idoll spake in a 
dreame to one of those old men that carried the arke, com- 
maunding him to comfort the people, making them new and 
great promises, and that they should leave this his sister 
with her family, being cruell and bad, raising their campe 
at mid-night in great silence, leaving no shew what way 
they passed. So they did, and the witch remaining alone 
with her family, in this sort peopled a towne which they 
call Malinalco, the inhabitants whereof are held for great 
sorcerers, being issued from such a mother. The Mexi- 
caines, for that they were greatly diminished by these divi- 
sions, and by the number of sicke and wearied persons 
which they had left behind, meant to repaire themselves, 

^ Ilernau Cortes. 


and to stay in a place called Tula, which signifies a place of ^^^•^^^- 
reedes. There their idoll commanded them to stoppe a 
great river_, that it might cover a great plaine, and by the 
meanes he taught them they did inviron a little hill called 
CoatepeCj making a great lake, the which they did plant 
round about with willows, elmes, sapines, and other trees. 
There beganne to breede much fish, and many birdes came 
thither : so as it became a very pleasant place. The situa- 
tion of this place seeming pleasant vnto them, and being 
wearied with travell, many talked of peopling there, and to 
passe no farther : wherewith the divell was much displeased, 
threatning the priests with death, commanding them to re- 
turne the river to hir course, saying that he would that 
night chastise those which had beene disobedient as they 
had deserved. And as to do ill is proper to the Divell, and 
that the divine Justice doth often suffer such to be delivered 
into the hands of such a tormentor, that choose him for 
their god ; it chanced that about mid-night they heard a 
great noise in one part of the campe, and in the morning 
going thither they found those dead that had talked of stay- 
ing there. The manor of their death was, that their 
stomackes were opened and their hearts pulled out. And 
by that meanes this good god taught these poore miserable 
creatures the kindes of sacrifices that pleased him, which 
was in opening the stomacke to pull out the heart, as they 
have since practised in their horrible sacrifices. Seeing this 
punishmeat, and that the plaine was dried, the lake being 
emptied, they asked counsell of their god what to doe, who 
commanded them to passe on, the which they did by little 
and little, vntill they came to Chapultepec, a league from 
Mexico, famous for the pleasantnes thereof. They did forti- 
fie themselves in these mountaines, fearing the nations 
which inhabited that Country, the which were opposite vnto 
them, especially for that one named Copil, sonne to this 
sorceresse, left in Malinalco, had blamed and spoken ill of 


Lib. vir. tho^Mexicaiiies : for this Copil, by the commandement of 
his mother, awhile after followed the Mexicaines course, 
labouring to incense the Tepanecas and other neighbours 
against them, even vnto the Chalcas : so as they came with 
a strong army to destroy the Mexicaines. Copil, in the 
meane space, stoode vpon a little hill in the middest of a 
lake called Acopilco, attending the destruction of his 
enemies, and they, by the advise of their idoll, went against 
him, tooke him suddenly, and slew him, carrying his heart 
to their god, who commanded them to cast it into the lake, 
faining that thereof did grow a plant called Tunal,^ where 
since Mexico was built. They came to fight with the Chal- 
cas and other Nations, having chosen for their Captaine a 
valiant man called Vitzilonitli, who, in an encounter, was 
taken and slaine by the enemies. But for all this, they were 
not discouraged, but fought valiantly; and in dispight of 
their enemies they brake the squadrons, and carrying their 
aged, their women, and yong children in the midst of their 
battaile, they passed on to Atlacuyavaya, a town of the Cul- 
huas, whom they found solemnising of a feast, in which 
place they fortified. The Chalcas, nor the other Nations, 
did not follow them, but grieved to be defeated by so small 
a number of men; they being in so great multitudes re- 
tyred to their townes. 

Chap. vi. — Of the Warres the Mexicaines had against them. 

of Gulhuacan, 

The Mexicaines, by the advice of their idoll, sent their 
messengers to the Lord of Culhuacan, to demand a place 
to dwell in, who after he had imparted it to his people, 
granted them the place of Ti9aapan, which signifies white 
waters, to the end they should all perish there, being full of 
vipers, snakes, and other venomous beasts which bred in a 

^ Prickly pear. 


hill neere adioyning. But being porswaded and tauglit by 
their divell, they accepted willingly what was offered_, and 
by their divelish art tamed these beastes, so as they did 
them no harme ; yea, they vsed them as meat, eating them 
with delight and appetite. The which the Lord of Cul- 
huacan seeing, and that they had tilled and sowed the land, 
he resolved to receive them into the Cittie, and to contract 
amity with them. But the god whom the Mexicaines did 
worship (as he is accustomed to do no good, but ill) said 
vnto his priests, that this was not the place where he would 
have them stay, and that they must go forth making warres. 
Therefore they must seeke forth a woman, and name her 
the goddesse of Discord. Wherevpon they resolved to send 
to the King of Culhuacan, to demand his daughter to be 
Queene of the Mexicaines, and mother to their god, who 
received this Ambassage willingly, sending his daughter 
presently gorgeously attyred and well accompanied. The 
same night she arrived, by order of the murtherer whome 
they worshipped, they killed her cruelly, and having flaed 
her artificially as they could do, they did clothe a yong man 
with her skinne, and therevpon her apparrell, placing him 
neere their idoll, dedicating him for a goddesse and the 
mother of their god, and ever after did worship it, making 
an idoll which they called Tocci, which is to say our grand- 
mother. Not content with this crueltie, they did maliciously 
invite the King of Culhuacan, the father of the yong maid, 
to come and worshippe his daughter, who was now con- 
secrated a goddesse, who comming with great presents, and 
well accompanied with his people, he was led into a very darke 
chappell where their idoll was, that he might offer sacrifice 
to his daughter that was in that place. But it chanced that 
the incense that was vpon the harth, according to their cus- 
tome, kindled in such sort, as hee might discerne his daugh- 
ter's haire, and having by this meanes discovered the 
cruelty and deceit, hee went forth crying alowde, and with 

Lib. VII. 

Lib. VII. 


all liis men he fell vpon the Mexicaines, forcing them to re- 
tyre to the lake^ so as they were almost drowned. The 
Mexicaines defended themselves, casting certaine little 
darts_, which they vsed in the warres, wherewith they much 
galled their ennemies. But in the end they got land^ and 
leaving that place^ they coasted along the lake, very weary 
and wet ; the women and little children crying and making 
great exclamations against them and their god that had 
brought them into this distresse. They were inforced to 
passe a river that could not be waded through, and there- 
fore they advised to make small boates of their targets, and 
of reedes, wherein they passed. Then afterwardes, having 
left Culhuacan, they arrived at Iztapalapa, and next at Aca- 
tzintitlan, afterwards at Tztacal, and finally at the place 
where the hermitage of San Anton now is, at the entry of 
Mexico, and to that quarter which they now call San Pablo. 
During which time their idoll did comfort them in their 
travells and incoraged them, promising great matters. 

Chap. vii. — Of the foundation of Mexico, 

The time being now come, that the father of lies should 
accomplish his promise made to his people, who could 
no longer suffer so many turnings, travells, and dangers, it 
happened that some old priests or sorcerers, beiug entred 
into a place full of water-lilies, they met with a very faire 
and cleere current of water, which seemed to be silver, and 
looking about, they found the trees, medowes, fish, and all 
that they beheld to be very white : wondring heereat, they 
remembred a prophecie of their god, whereby he had given 
them that for a token of their place of rest, and to make 
them Lords of other Nations. Then weeping for ioy, they 
returned to the people with these good newes. The night 
following, Yitzlipuztli appeared in a dreame to an antient 


priest, saying, that they should seeke out a TunaP in the ^^^- ^"- 
lake, which grew out of a stone (which as he told them, was 
the same place where by his commaundement they had cast 
the heart of Copil, sonne to the sorceresse, their enemy) 
and vpon this Tunal they should see a goodly Eagle, which 
fed on certaine small birdes. When they should see this, 
they should beleeve it was the place where their Cittie 
should be built, the which should surmount al others, and 
be famous throughout the world. Morning being come, 
the old man assembled the whole people, from the greatest 
to the least, making a long speech vnto them, how much 
they were bound unto their god, and of the Kevelation, 
which (although vnworthy) hee had received that night, con- 
cluding that all must seeke out that happie place which was 
promised them ; which bred such devotion and ioy in them 
all, that presently they vndertooke the enterprise, and 
dividing themselves into bandes, they beganne to search, 
following the signes of the revelation of the desired place. 
Amidest the thickest of these water-lillies in the lake, they 
met with the same course of water they had seene the day 
before, but much differing, being not white, but red, like 
blood, the which divided it selfe into two streames, whereof 
the one was of a very obscure azure, the which bred admira- 
tion in them, noting some great mistery as they said. After 
much search heere and there, the Tunal appeared growing 
on a stone, whereon was a royall Eagle, with the wings dis- 
plaied towardes the Sunne, receiving his heat. About this 
Eagle were many rich fethers, white, red, yellow, blew, and 
greene, of the same sort as they make their images, 
which Eagle held in his tallants a goodly birde. Those 
which sawe it and knew it to be the place fore-told by the 
Oracle, fel on their knees, doing great worship to the Eagle, 
which bowed the head looking on every side. Then was 
there great cries, demonstrations, and thanks vnto the Cre- 

* Prickly pear. 

Lid. VII. 


ator, and to their great god Vitzlipuztli^ who was their 
father, and had alwaies told them truth. For this reason 
they called the cittie which they founded there, Tenoxtitlan, 
which signifies Tunal on a stone, and to this day they carry 
in their arrnes, an Eagle upon a Tunal, with a bird in one 
tallant, and standing with the other vpon the Tunal. The 
day following, by common consent, they made an hermitage 
adioyning to the Tunal of the Eagle, that the Arke of their 
god might rest there, till they might have meanes to build 
him a sumptuous Temple : and so they made this her- 
mitage of flagges and turfes covered with straw ; then 
having consulted with their god, they resolved to buy of 
their neighbours, stone, timber, lime, in exchange of fish, 
froggeSj and yong kids, and for duckes, water-hennes, 
curlews, and divers other kindes of sea fowles. All which 
things they did fish and hunt for in this Lake, whereof there 
is great aboundance. They went with these things to the 
markets of the Townes and Citties of the Tepanecas, and 
of them of Tezcuco their neighbours, and with pollicie they 
gathered together, by little and little, what was neces- 
sary for the building of their Cittie ; so as they built a bet- 
ter Chappell for their idoU of lime and stone, and laboured 
to fill vp a great part of the lake with rubbish. This done, 
the idoU spake one night to one of his priests in these 
tearmes, " Say vnto the Mexicaines, that the Noblemen 
divide themselves everie one with their kinsfolkes and friends, 
and that they divide themselves into foure principall quar- 
ters, about the house which you have built for my rest, and 
let every quarter build in his quarter at his pleasure/' The 
which was put in execution : and those be the foure prin- 
cipall quarters of Mexico, which are called at this day San 
Juan, Santa Maria la Redonda, San Pablo, and San Sebas- 
tian. After this, the Mexicaines being thus divided into 
these foure quarters, their god commanded them to divide 
amongest them the gods he should name bo them, and that 


each principal quarter should name other special quarters_, 
where these gods should be worshipped. So as vnder 
every one of these foure principall quarters, there were 
many less comprehended, according to the number of the 
idoUs which their god commanded them to worship, which 
they called Calpultetco, which is as much as to say, god of 
the quarters. In this manner, the Citie of Mexico Tenox- 
tiltan was founded, and grew great. 

Lib. VII. 

Chap. viii. — Of the sedition of those ofTlatelttlco, and of the 
first Kings the Mexicaines did choose. 

This division being made as afore-said, some olde men 
and Antients held opinion, that in the division, they had not 
respected them as they deserved : for this cause, they and 
their kinsfolke did mutine, and went to seeke another 
residence ; and as they went thorough the lake, they found 
a small peece of ground or terrasse, which they call Tloteloli, 
where they inhabited, calling it Tlatellulco, which signifies 
place of a terrasse. This was the third division of the Mex- 
icaines, since they left their Country. That of Mechoacan 
being the first, and that of Malinalco the second. Those 
which separated themselves and went to Tlatellulco were 
famous men, but of bad disposition ; and therefore they 
practised against the Mexicaines, their neighbours, all the 
ill neighbourhood they could. They had alwaies quarrells 
against them, and to this day continues their hatred and 
olde leagues. They of Tenoxtiltan, seeing them of Tlatell- 
ulco thus opposite vnto them, and that they multiplied, feared 
that in time they might surmount them : heerevpon they 
assembled in counsell, where they thought it good to choose 
a King, whome they should obey, and strike terror into 
their enemies, that by this meanes they should bee more 
vnited and stronger among themselves, and their enemies 

H H 

Lib. VII. 


not presume too much against them. Being thus resolved 
to choose a King, they took another advise very profitable 
and assured, to choose none among themselves, for the 
avoyding of dissentions, and to gaine (by their new King) 
some other neighbour nations, by whom they were in- 
vironed, being destitute of all succours. All well con- 
sidered, both to pacifie the King of Culhuacan, whome 
they had greatly offended, having slaine and flead the 
daughter of his predecessor, and done him so great a 
scorne, as also to have a King of the Mexicaine blood, of 
which generation there were many in the Culhuacan, which 
continued there since the time they lived in peace amongst 
them j they resolved to choose for their King, a yong man 
called Acamapixtli, Sonne to a great Mexicaine Prince, and 
of a Ladie, daughter to the King of Culhuacan. Presently 
they sent Ambassadors with a great present to demand this 
man, who delivered their Ambassage in these tearmes : 
" Great Lord, we your vassals and servants, placed and shut 
vp in the weedes and reedes of the Lake, alone and aban- 
doned of all the Nations of the world, led onely and guided 
by our god to the place where we are, which falles in the 
iurisdiction of your limits of Ascapusalco, and of Tezcuco. 
Although you have suffered vs to live and remaine there, 
yet will we not, neither is it reason to, live without a head 
and lord to command, to correct, and governe vs, instruct- 
ing vs in the course of our life, and defending vs from our 
enemies : Therefore we come to you, knowing that in your 
Court and house, there are children of our generation, linckt 
and alied with yours, issued from our entrailes, and yours, 
of our blood and yours, among the which we have know- 
ledge of a grand-child of yours and ours, called Acamapixtli. 
We beseech you, therefore, to give him vs for Lord, we will 
esteeme him as hee deserves, seeing hee is of the lineage of 
the Lords of Mexico, and the Kings of Culhuacan. 

The king having consulted vppon this poynt, and finding 


it nothing inconvenient to be alied to the Mexicaines, who 
were vahant men, made them answer that they should take 
his grandchilde in good time,, adding therevnto, that if he 
had beene a woman, hee woulde not have given her, noting 
the foule fact before spoken of, ending his discourse with 
these wordes : *' Let my grand-childe go to serve your god, 
and be his lievetenant, to rule and governe his creatures, by 
whom we live, who is the Lord of night, day, and windes : 
Let him goe and be Lord of the water and land, and pos- 
sesse the Mexicaine Nation, take him in good time, and vse 
him as my sonne and grand-childe.'^ The Mexicaines gave 
him thanks, all ioyntly desiring him to marry him with his 
owne hand, so as he gave him to wife one of the noblest 
Ladies amongst them. They conducted the new King and 
Queene with all honour possible, and made him a solemne 
reception, going all in generall foorth to see the king, whom 
they led into pallaces, which were then but meane ; and 
having seated them in royall throanes, presently one of the 
Antients and an Orator much esteemed amongest them, did 
rise vp, speaking in this manner : " My sonne, our Lord 
and King, thou art welcome to this poor house and citty, 
amongest these weedes and mudde, where thy poore fathers, 
grandfathers, and kinsfolkes, endure what it pleaseth the 
Lord of things created. Eemember, Lord, thou commest 
hither to be the defence and support of the Mexicaine Na- 
tion, and to be the resemblance of our God Yitzlipuztli, 
wherevpon the charge and governement is given thee. 
Thou knowest we are not in our country, seeing the land we 
possesse at this day is anothers, neither know we what shall 
become of vs to-morrowe, or another day : Consider, there- 
fore, that thou commest not to rest or recreate thy selfe, but 
rather to indure a new charge vnder so heavie a burden : 
wherein thou must continually labour, being slave to this 
multitude, which is fallen to thy lotte, and to all this neigh- 
bour people, whome they must strive to gratifie, and give 

H H 2 

Lib. VII. 

Lib. VII. 


them contentment^ seeing thou knowest we live vpon their 
lands, and within their limites. And ending, hee repeated 
these wordes : ''Thou art welcome, thou and the Queene our 
Mistris, to this your realme." This was the speech of the 
old man, which^ with other orations (which the Mexicaine 
histories do celebrate) the children did vse to learne by hart, 
and so they were kept by tradition, some of them deserve 
well to be reported in their proper termes. The king 
aunswering, thanked them, and offered them his care and 
diligence in their defence and aide in all he could. After 
they gave him the othe, and after their manor set the 
royaJl crown vpon his head, the which is like to the Crowne 
of the dukes of Venice : the name of Acamapixtli, their first 
king, signifies a handfull of reeds, and therefore they carry 
in their armories a hand holding many arrows of reedes. 

Chap. ix. — Of the strange tribute the Mexicaines paied to 
them of Azcapuzalco. 

The Mexicaines happened so well in the election of their 
new king, that in short time they grew to have some form 
of a common-weale, and to be famous among strangers ; 
wherevpon their neighbours, moved with feare_, practised to 
subdue them, especially the Tepanecas, who had Azcap- 
uzalco for their metropolitane citty, to whome the Mexi- 
caines payed tribute, as strangers dwelling in their land. 
For the king of Azcapuzalco fearing their power which 
increased,, soght to oppresse the Mexicaines, and having 
consulted with his subjects, he sent to tel king Acamapixtli 
that the ordinary tribute they payed was too little, and that 
from thencefoorth they should bring firre trees, sapines, 
and willowes for the building of the citty, and moreover 
they shoulde make him a garden in the water planted with 
diverse kindes of hearbes and pulses, which they should 


bring vnto him yearely by water^ dressed in tliis maner, 
without failing ; which if they did not, he declared them his 
enemies, and would roote them out. The Mexicaines were 
much troubled at this commaundement, holding it impos- 
sible : and that this demaund was to no other end, but to 
seeke occasion to mine them. But their god Vitzlipuztli 
comforted them, appearing that night to an olde man, com- 
maunding him to say to the king his sonne in his name, 
that hee should make no difficultie to accept of this tribute, 
he would help them and make the meanes easie, which after 
happened : for the time of tribute being come, the Mexi- 
canes carried the trees that were required, and moreover, a 
garden made and floating in. the water, and in it much 
Mays (which is their corne) already grained and in the 
eare : there was also Indian pepper, beetes, Tomates, pease, 
gourds, and many other things, al ripe, and in their season. 
Such as have not seene the gardines in the lake of Mexico, 
in the middest of the water, will not beleeve it, but will say 
it is an inchantment of the Divell whom they worship : But 
in trueth it is a matter to be done, and there hath beene often 
seene of these gardens floating in the water; for they cast earth 
vpon reedes and grasse, in such sort as it never wastes in the 
water; they sowe and plant this ground, so as the grainegrowes 
and ripens very well, and then they remove it from place to 
place. But it is true, that to make this great garden easily, 
and to have the fruites grow well, is a thing that makes 
men iudge there was the worke of Vitzlipuztli, whom other- 
wise they call Patillas, specially having never made nor 
seene the like. The king of Azcapuzalco wondred much 
when he sawe that accomplished which he held impossible, 
saying vnto his subiects, that this people had a great god 
that made all easie vnto them, and hee sayd vnto the Mexi- 
caines, that seeing their God gave them all things perfit 
hee would the yeare following, at the time of tribute, they 
shoulde bring in their gardine a wild ducke, and a heron, 

Lib. VII. 

Lib. tii. 


sitting on their egges, in such sorte, that they should hatch 
their yoong ones as they should arrive, without failing of a 
minute, vpon paine of his indignation. The Mexicans were 
much troubled and heavy with this prowde and strict com- 
maunde : but their god, as he was accustomed, comforted 
them in the night, by one of his priests, saying that he 
would take all that charge vpon him, willing them not to 
fear, but beleeve that the day would come, whenas the Az- 
capuzalcos should pay with their lives this desire of new 
tributes. The time being come, as the Mexicaines carried 
all that was demaunded of their gardins, among the reeds 
and weeds of the gardin, they found a ducke and a heron 
hatching their egges, and at the same instant when they 
arrived at Azcapuzalco their yong ones were disclosed. 
Wherat the king of Azcapuzalco wondring beyond measure, 
he said againe to his people, that these were more than 
humane beings, and that the Mexicans beganne as if they 
would make themselves lordes over all those provinces. 
Yet did he not diminish the order of this tribute, and the 
Mexicans finding not themselves mighty enough, endured 
this subiection and slavery the space of fifty yeeres. In this 
time the king Acamapixtli died, having beautified the Citty 
of Mexico with many goodly buildings, streets, conduits of 
water, and great aboundance of munition. Hee raigned in 
peace and rest forty yeares, having bin alwayes zealous for 
the good and increase of the common-weale. 

As hee drew neare his end, hee did one memorable thing, 
that having lawfuU children to whom he might leave the 
succession of the realme, yet would he not do it, but con- 
trariwise hee spake freely to the common-weale, that as 
they had made a free election of him, so they should choose 
him that should seeme fittest for their good government, 
advising them therein to have a care to the good of the 
common-weale, and seeming grieved that he left them not 
freed from tribute and subiection^ hee died, having recom- 


mended his wife and children vnto them^ he left all his ^^^- ^"• 
people sorrowfull for his death. 

Chap. x. — Of the second Kingj and luhat happened in his 


The obsequies of the dead king performed, the Antients, 
the chiefe of the realme, and some part of the people assem- 
bled together to choose a King, where the Antients pro- 
pounded the necessitie wherein they were, and that it was 
needefuU to choose for chiefe of their citty, a man that had 
pity of age, of widows, and orphans, and to be a father of 
the commonweale : for in very deede they should be the 
feathers of his wings, the eie-browes of his eyes, and the 
beard of his face, that it was necessarie he were valiant, 
being needelull .shortly to vse their forces, as their god had 
prophesied. Their resolution in the end was to chuse a 
Sonne of the predecessor, vsing the like good office in ac- 
cepting his Sonne for successor, as hee had done to the 
commonweale, relying thereon. This young man was called 
Vitzilovitli, which signifieth a rich feather; they set the 
royall crowne vpon his head, and annointed him, as they 
have beene accustomed to doe to all their Kings, with an 
ointment they call Divine, being the same vnction where- 
with they did annoy nt their Idoll. Presently an Orator 
made an eloquent speech, exhorting him to arme himselfe 
with courage, and free them from the travells, slavery, and 
misery they suffered, being oppressed by the Azcapuzalcos : 
which done, all did him homage. This king was not married, 
and his Counsell helde opinion, that it was good to marry 
him with the daughter of the king of Azcapuzalco, to have 
him a friend by this alliance, and to obtain some diminution 
of their heavy burthen of tributes imposed vpon them, and 
yet they feared lest he should disdaine to give them his 


Lid. vii. daughter, by reason they were his vassalls : yet the king of 
Azcapuzalco yeelded therevnto, having humbly required 
him, who, with curteous wordes, gave them his daughter, 
called Ayauchigual, whom they ledde with great pompe and 
ioy to Mexico, and performed the ceremony and solemnity 
of marriage, which was to tie a corner of the mans cloke to 
a part of the womans vaile in signe of the band of marriage. 
This Queene broght foorth a sonne, of whose name they de- 
maunded advise of the king of Azcapuzalco, and casting 
lots as they had accustomed (being greatly given to sooth- 
sayings, especially vpon the names of their children), he 
would have his grand-childe called Chimalpopoca, which 
signifies a target casting smoke. The Queene, his daughter, 
seeing the contentment the King of Azcapuzalco had of his 
grand-child, tooke occasion to intreat him to releeve the 
Mexicaines of the heavy burthen of their tributes, seeing he 
had now a grand-child Mexicaine, the which the King will- 
ingly yeelded vnto, by the advise of his Counsell, granting 
(for the tribute which they paid) to bring yeerely a couple 
of duckes and some fish, in signe of subiection, and that 
they dwelt in his land. The Mexicaines, by this meanes, 
remained much eased and content, but it lasted little. For 
the Queene, their Protectrix, died soone after: and the 
yere following, likewise Yitzilovitli, the king of Mexico died, 
leaving his sonne, Chimalpopoca, tenne yeares olde ; hee 
raigned thirteene yeeres, and died thirty yeeres old, or little 
more. Hee was held for a good king, and carefull in the 
service of his gods, whose Images hee held kings to be ; 
and that the honour done to their god was done to the King 
who was his image. For this cause the kings have beene 
so affectionate to the service of their gods. This king was 
carefull to winne the love of his neighbours, and to traflScke 
with them, whereby hee augmented his citty, exercising his 
men in warrelike actions in the Lake, disposing them to 
that which he pretended, as you shall see presently. 


Chap. xi. — Of Chi7nalpopoca, the third lung, and his cruell 

death, and the occasion of warre ivhich the 

Mexicaines made. 

The Mexicaines, for successor to their deceased king, did ^^^- '^"• 
choose his sonne Chimalpopoca by common consent, although 
he were a child of tenne yeeres old^ being of opinion that it 
was alwayes necessary to keepe the favor of the king of 
Azcapuzalco, making his grand-childe king. They then set 
him in his throane, giving him the ensignes of warre, with 
a bowe and arrowes in one hand, and a sword with rasours 
(which they commonly vse) in the right, signifying thereby 
(as they do say) that they pretended by armes to set them- 
selves at liberty. The Mexicaines had great want of water, 
that of the Lake being very thicke and muddj^, and there- 
fore ill to drincke, so as they caused their infant king to 
desire of his grandfather, the king of Azcapuzalco, the 
water of the mountaine of Chapultepec, which is from 
Mexico a league, as is saide before, which they easely ob- 
tained, and by their industry made an aqueduct of faggots, 
weeds, and flagges, by the which they brought water to 
their citty. But because the Cittie was built within the 
Lake, and the aqueduct did crosse it, it did breake forth in 
many places, so as they could not inioy the water as they 
desired, and had great scarcitie : whervpon, whether they 
did expresly seeke it, to quarrell with the Tepanecas, or 
that they were mooved vppon small occasion, in the end 
they sent a resolute ambassage to the king of Azcapuzalco, 
saying they could not vse the water which he had gratiously 
granted them, and therefore they required him to provide 
them wood, lime, and stone, and to send his workmen, that 
by their meanes they might make a pipe of stone and lime 
that should not breake. ^.l.'his message nothing pleased the 
king, and much lesse his subiects, seeming to be too pre- 

Lib. VII. 


samptuous a message, and purposely insolent, for vassals to 
their Lord. The chiefe of the Counsell disdaining thereat, 
said it was too bold that, not content with permission to 
live in an others land, and to have water given them, but 
they would have them goe to serve them : what a matter 
was that ? And whereon presumed this fugitive nation, 
shut vp in the mud ? They would let them know how fit 
they were to worke, and to abate their pride in taking from 
them their land and their lives. 

In these termes and choUer they left the king, whom 
they did somwhat suspect, by reason of his grandchild, and 
consulted againe anew what they were to doe, where they 
resolved to make a generall proclamation that no Tepaneca 
should have any commerce or trafficke with any Mexicaine, 
that they should not goe to their Cittie, nor receive any 
into theirs, vpon paine of death. Whereby we may vnder- 
stand that the king did not absolutely commaund over his 
people, and that he governed more like a Consul or a Duke 
than a King, although since with their power the commaund 
of Kings increased, growing absolute Tyrants, as you shal 
see in the last Kings. For it hath beene an ordinarie thing 
among the Barbarians, that such as their power hath beene, 
such hath beene their commaund ; yea, in our Histories of 
Spaine we finde in some antient kings that manner of rule 
which the Tepanecas vsed. Such were the first kings of 
the Komans, but that Rome declined from Kings to Consuls, 
and a Senate, till that after they came to be commaunded 
by Emperours. But these Barbarians, of temperate Kings 
became tyrants, of which governements a moderate monarchy 
is the best and most assured. But returne we now vnto our 

The king of Azcapuzalco seeing the resolution of his sub- 
iects, which was to kil the Mexicans, intreated them first to 
stcale away the yong king, his grand-childe, and afterwards 
do what they pleased to the Mexicans. All in a manner 


yeelded heerevnto to give the king contenfcment, and for i^ib-^h. 
pitty they had of the child ; but two of the chiefest were 
much opposite, inferring that it was bad counsell, for that 
Chimalpopoca, although hee were of their bloud, yet was it 
but by the mothers side, and that the fathers was to be 
preferred, and therefore they concluded that the first they 
must kill was Chimalpopoca, king of Mexico, protesting so 
to doe. The king of Azcapuzalco was so troubled with this 
contradiction, and the resolution they had taken, that soone 
after for very griefe he fell sicke and died. By whose death 
the Tepanecas, finishing their consultation, committed a 
notable treason ; for one night the young king of Mexico 
sleeping without guard or feare of any thing, they of Azca- 
puzalco entred his pallace, and slew him sodaiuly, returning 
vnseene. The morning being come, when the Nobles went 
to salute the King, as they were accustomed, they found 
him slaine with great and cruell wounds ; then they cried 
out, and filled all their cittie with teares : and transported 
with ch oiler, they presently fell to armes, with an intent to 
revenge their Kings death. As they ranne vppe and downe, 
full of fury and disorder, one of their chiefest knightes stept 
foorth, labouring to appease them, with a grave admonition : 
^' Whither goe you,^^ saide hee, '' yee Mexicaines ; quiet 
your selves, consider that things done without consideration 
are not well guided, nor come to good end : suppresse your 
griefe, considering that, although your king be dead, the 
noble blood of the Mexicaines is not extinct in him. Wee 
have children of our kings deceased, by whose conduct, suc- 
ceeding to the real me, you shall the better execute what 
you pretend, having a leader to guide your enterprise, go 
not blindel}^, surcease, and choose a king first to guide and 
encourage you against your enemies. In the meane time 
dissemble discreetly, performing the funeralls of your de- 
ceased king, whose body you see heere present, for heere- 
after you shall finde better meanes to take revenge." Bv 

Lib. VII. 


this meanes, the Mexicaines passed no farther, but stayed to 
make the obsequies of their King, wherevnto they invited 
the Lords of Tezcuco and Culhuacan, reporting vnto them 
this foule and cruell fact, which the Tepanecas had com- 
mitted, moving them to have pitty on them, and incensing 
them against their enemies, concluding that their resolution 
v^as to die or to bee revenged of so great an indignitie, in- 
treating them not to favour so vniust a fact of their enemies; 
and that for their part, they desired not their aide of armes 
or men, but onely to bee lookers on of what should passe, 
and that for their maintenance they would not stoppe nor 
hinder the commerce as the Tepanecas had done. At these 
speeches they of Tezcuco and Culhuacan made them great 
shewes of good will, and that they were well satisfied, offer- 
ing them their citties, and all the commerce they desired, 
that they might provide vittaile and munition at their 
pleasure, both by land and water. After this, the Mexi- 
canes intreated them to stay with them, and assist at the 
election of their King; the which they likewise granted, to 
give them contentment. 

Chap. xit. — Of the fourth Kiiig, called Iscoaltj and of the 
warre against the Tepanecas. 

The Electors being assembled, an old man that was held 
for a great Orator, rose vp, who, as the histories report, 
spake in this manner: "The light of your eyes, O Mexicaines, 
is darkened, but not of your hearts : for although you have 
lost him that was the light and guide of the Mexicaine 
Common-weale, yet that of the heart remaines : to consider, 
that although they have slaine one man, yet there are others 
that may supply with advantage the want we have of him : 
the Mexicaine Nobilitie is not extinguished thereby, nor the 
blood royall decaied. Turne your eyes and looke about you; 


you shall see the Nobilitie of Mexico set in order, not one ^^^- ^^'• 
nor two, but many and excellent Princes, sonnes to Aca- 
mapixtli, our true and lawfull King and Lord. Heere you 
may choose at your pleasure, saying, I will this man, and 
not that. If you have lost a father, heere you may find 
both father and mother : make account, Mexicaines, that 
the Sunne is eclipsed and darkened for a time, and will 
returne suddenly. If Mexico hath beene darkened by the 
death of your King, the Sunne will soon shew, in choosing 
another King. Looke to whom, and vpon whom you shall 
cast your eyes, and towards whom your heart is inclined, 
and this is hee whom your god Yitzlipuztli hath chosen.'" 
And continuing a while this discourse, he ended to the 
satisfaction of all men. In the end, by the consent of this 
Counsell, Izcoalt was chosen King, which signifies a snake 
of rasors,-^ who was Sonne to the first King Acamapixtli, by 
a slave of his : and although he were not legitimate, yet 
they made choyce of him, for that he exceeded the rest in 
behaviour, valour, and magnanimitie of courage. All seemed 
very well satisfied, and above all, these of Tescuco, for their 
king was married to a sister of Iscoalt. After the King 
had beene crowned and set in his royall seat, another Ora- 
tor stept up, discoursing how the king was bound to his 
Common-weale, and of the courage he ought to shew in 
travell, speaking thus : '^ Behold this day we depend on 
thee ; it may be thou wilt let fall the burthen that lies vpon 
thy shoulders, and suffer the old man and woman, the orphan 
and the wide we to perish. Take pittie of the infants that 
go creeping in the ay re, who must perish if our enemies sur- 
mount vs ; vnfold then and stretch forth thy cloake, my 
Lord, to beare these infants vpon thy shoulders, which be 
the poore and the common people, who live assured under 
the shadowe of thy wings, and of thy bountie.^^ Yttering 
many other words vpon this subiect, the which (as I have 

» " Culebra de navajas." 


Lib. VII. said) they learne by hearty for the exercise of their children, 
and after did teach them as a lesson to those that beganne 
to learne the facultie of Orators. In the meane time, the 
Tepanecas were resolute to destroy the Mexicaines, and to 
this end they had made great preparations. And therefore 
the new King tooke counsell for the proclaiming of warre, 
and to fight with those that had so much wronged them. 
But the common people, seeing their adversaries to exceede 
them farre in numbers and munition for the warre, they 
came amazed to their King, pressing him not to vndertake 
so dangerous a warre, which would destroy their poor Cittie 
and Nation : wherevpon being demaunded what advise were 
fittest to take, they made answer that the King of Azcap- 
uzalco was very pittifull, that they should demand peace, 
and offer to serve him, drawing them forth those marshes, 
and that he should give them houses and lands among his 
subiects, that by this meanes they might depend all vppon 
one Lord. And for the obtaining heereof, they should 
carry their god in his litter for an intercessor. The cries of 
the people were of such force (having some Nobles that ap- 
proved their opinion), as presently they called for the 
Priests, preparing the litter and their god, to perform the 
voyage. As this was preparing, and every one yeelded to 
this treatie of peace, and to subiect themselves to the Tepa- 
necas, a gallant yong man, and of good sort, stept out 
among the people, who, with a resolute countenance, spake 
thus vnto them : '' What meanes this, yea Mexicaines, 
are yee mad ? How hath so great cowardise crept in among 
vs ? Shall we go and yeeld ourselves thus to the Azcap- 
uzalcos.^^ Then turning to the King, he said : " How now, 
ray Lord, will you endure this ? Speak to the people, that 
they may suffer vs to finde out some meanes for our honour 
and defence, and not to yeelde our selves so simply and 
shamefully into the hands of our enemies.^' This yong man 
was called Tlacaellel, nephew to the King, he was the most 


valiant Captainerand greatest Counsellor that ever the Mex- ^'^^- "«'"• 
icaines had, as you shall see heereafter. Izcoalt, incouraged 
by that his nephew had so wisely spoken, retained the 
people, saying they should first suffer him to try another 
better meanes. Then turning towards his Nobilitie, he said 
vnto them : " You are all heere, my kinsmen, and the best of 
Mexico, hee that hath the courage to carrie a message to 
the Tepanecas, let him rise vp.'^ They looked one vpon 
another, but no man stirred nor offered himselfe to the word. 
Then this yong man, Tlacaellel, rising, offered himselfe to 
go, saying, that seeing he must die, it did import little 
whether it were to-day or to-morrow : for what reason should 
he so carefully preserve himselfe ? he was therefore readie, 
let him command what he pleased. And although all held 
this for a rash attempt, yet the King resolved to send, him, 
that he might thereon vnderstand the will and disposition 
of the King of Azcapuzalco and of his people ; holding it 
better to hasten his nephew's death, then to hazard the 
honour of his Common-weale. Tlacaellel being ready, 
tooke his way, and being come to the gards, who had com- 
maundement to kill any Mexicaines that came towards them 
by cunning or otherwise : he perswaded them to suffer him 
to passe to the king, who wondered to see him, and hear- 
ing his ambassage, which was to demand peace of him 
vnder honest conditions, answered, that hee would impart 
it to his subiects, willing him to returne the next day for 
his answer ; then Tlacaellel demanded a passport, yet could 
he not obtaine any, but that he should vse his best skill. 
With this he returned to Mexico, giving his words to the 
guards to returne. And, although the King of Azcapuzalco 
desired peace, being of a milde disposition, yet his subiects 
did so incense him, as his answer was open warre. The 
which being heard by the messenger, he did all his King 
commanded him, declaring by this ceremony to give armes, 
and anointing the King with the vnction of the dead, that 


Lib. vit. j^ ^jg Kings behalfe he did defie him. Having ended all, 
the King of Azcapuzalco suffering himselfe to be anointed 
and crowned with feathers, gi^i^o goodly armes in recom- 
pence to the messenger, wishing him not to returne by the 
pallace gate, whereas many attended to cut him in peeces, 
but to go out secretly by a little false posterne that was 
open in one of the courts of the Pallace. This yong man 
did so, and turning by secret waies, got away in safetie in 
sight of the guards, and there defied them, saying, '^ Tepa- 
necas and Azcapuzalcas, you do your oflSce ill ; vnderstand 
you shall all die, and not one Tepaneca shall remaine alive." 
In the meane time the guardes fell vpon him, where he be- 
haved him selfe so valiantly, that hee slew some of them : 
and seeing many more of them come running, hee retyred 
himselfe gallantly to the Cittie, where he brought newes 
that warre was proclaimed with the Tepanecas, and that 
hee had defied their King. 

Chap. xiii. — Of the hattell the Mexicaines gave to the Tepan- 
ecas, and of the victorie they obtained. 

The defie being knowne to the Commons of Mexico, they 
came to the king, according to their accustomed cowardise, 
demaunding leave to departe the Citty, holding their ruin 
certaine. The king didde comfort and incourage them, 
promising to give them libertie if they vanquished their 
enemies, willing them not to feare. The people replied : 
^^ And if we be vanquished what shall we doe?" ^^ If we 
be overcome (aunswered the king) we will be bound pre- 
sently to yeeld ourselves into your hands to suffer death, 
eate our flesh in your dishes, and be revenged of vs.'^ " It 
shall be so then (saide they) if you loose the victorie, and 
if you obtain the victorie, we do presently offer our selves 
to be your Tributaries, to labour in your houses, to sowe 
your ground, to carrie your armes and baggage when you 


goe to the warres for ever, wee and our descendants after ^"• 
vs/' These accordes made betwixt the people and the 
nobilitie (which they did after fully performe^ eyther will- 
ingly or by constraint, as they had promised), the king 
named for his captain generall Tlacaellel, the whole camp 
was put in order, and into squadrons, giving the places of 
captaines to the most valiant of his kinsfolkes and friends : 
then did hee make them a goodly speech, whereby he did 
greatly incourage them, being now wel prepared, charging 
all men to obey the commaundement of the Generall whome 
he had appoynted : he divided his men into two partes, 
commanding the most valiant and hardie to give the first 
charge with him, and that all the rest should remaine with 
the king Izcoatl, vntil they should see the first assaile their 
enemies. Marching then in order, they were discovered 
by them of Azcapuzalco, who presently came furiously foorth 
the citty, carrying great riches of gold, silver, and armes of 
great value, as those which had the empire of all that coun- 
try. Izcoatl gave the signall to battaile, with a little 
drumme he carried on his shoulders, and presently they 
raised a general showt, crying Mexico, Mexico, they charged 
the Tapanecans, and although they were farre more in num- 
ber, yet did they defeate them, and force them to retire 
into their Cittie ; then advaunced they which remained 
behinde, crying Tlacaellel, victorie, victorie, all sodainely 
entred the Citty, where (by the Kings comraandement) they 
pardoned not any man, no not olde men, women, nor chil- 
dren, for they slew them all, and spoyled the Citty, being 
very rich. And not content heerewith, they followed them 
that fled, and were retired into the craggy rocks of the 
Sierras or neere mountaines, striking and making a great 
slaughter of them. The Tapanecans being retired to a 
mountaine, cast downe their armes, demaunding their lives, 
and ofi'ering to serve the Mexicaines, to give them lands 
and gardins, stone, lime and timber, and to hold them 

I I 


Lib. VII, 


alwayes for their Lordes. Ypon this condition Tlacaellec 
retired his men, and ceased the battell^ graunting them 
their Uves upon the former conditions^ which they did 
solemnely sweare. Then they returned to Azcapuzalco, and 
so with their rich and victorious spoiles to the cittie of 
Mexico. The day following the king assembled the Nobil- 
itie and the people, to whom he laid open the accord the 
Commons had made, demaunding of them if they were con- 
tent to persist therin : the Commons made answer that they 
had promised, and they had well deserved it, and therefore 
they were content to serve them perpetually. Wherevpon 
they took an othe, which since they have kept without con- 

This done, Izcoatl returned to Azcapuzalco (by the advise 
of his counsell), he divided all the lands and goods of the 
conquered among the conquerours, the chiefest parte fell to 
the King, then to Tlacaellel, and after to the rest of the 
Nobles, as they best deserved in the battell. They also 
gave land to some plebeians, having behaved themselves 
valiantly ; to others they distributed the pillage, making 
small account of them as of cowardes. They appointed lands 
in common for the quarters of Mexico, to every one his part, 
for the service. and sacrifices of their gods. This was the 
order, which after they alwayes kept, in the division of the 
lands and spoyles of those they had vanquished and sub- 
dewed. By this meanes they of Azcapuzalco remained so 
poore, as they had no lands left them to labor, and (which 
was worse) they tooke their king from them, and all power 
to chuse any other then him of Mexico. 


Chap. xiv. — Of the warre and victory the Mexicaines had 
against the Cittie of Guyoacan. 

Although the chiefe cittie of the Tepanecas was that of 
Azcapuzalco_, yet had they others with their private Lordes, 
as Tucuba and Cuyoacan. These seeing the storme passed, 
would gladly that they of Azcapuzalco had renewed the 
warre against the Mexican s^ and seeing them danted, as a 
nation wholy broken and defeated_, they of Cuyoacan re- 
solved to make warre by themselves ; to the which they 
laboured to draw the other neighbor nations, who would not 
stir nor quarrell with the Mexicans. In the meane time the 
hatred and malice increasing, they of Cuyoacan beganne to 
ill intreate the women that went to their markets^ mocking 
at them, and doing the like to the men over whom they had 
power : for which cause the king of Mexico defended,^ that 
none of his should goe to Cuyoacan, and that they should 
receive none of them into Mexico, the which made them of 
Cuyoacan resolve wholy to warre : but first they would pro- 
voke them by some shamefull scorne, which was, that having 
invited them to one of their solemn feasts, after they had 
made them a goodly banquet, and feasted them with a great 
daunce after their manner, they sent them, for their fruite, 
womens apparell, forcing them to put it on, and so to re- 
turne home like women to their cittie, reproching them, 
that they were cowards and effeminate, and that they durst 
not take armes, being suflSciently provoked. Those of 
Mexico say, that for revenge they did vnto them a fowle 
scorn e, laying at the gates of their cittie of Cuyoacan cer- 
taine things which smoaked,^ by meanes whereof many 
women were delivered before their time, and many fell 
si eke. In the end, all came to open warre, and there was a 
battell fought, wherein they imployed all their forces, in 
* "Vedo." - " Ciertos humazos." 

I l2 

Lib. VII. 


Lib. VII. the wliicli Tlacaellel, by his courage and policie in warre, 
obtained the victory. For, having left king Izcoatl in 
fight with them of Cuyoacan, he put himselfe in ambush 
with some of the most valiant souldiers, and so turning 
about charged them behind, and forced them to retire into 
their citty. But seeing their intent was to flie into a 
temple, which was verie strong, he, with three other valiant 
souldiers, pursued them eagerly, and got before them, seising 
on the temple and firing it, so as he forced them to flie to the 
fields, where he made a great slaughter of the vanquished, 
pursuing them two leagues into the countrey, vnto a litle 
hillj where the vanquished, casting away their weapons and 
their armes across, yeelded to the Mexicans, and with many 
teares craved pardon of their overweening follie, in vsing 
them like women, offering to bee their slaves : so as^ in the 
end, the Mexicaines did pardon them. Of this victory the 
Mexicaines carried away very rich spoiles of garments, 
armes, gold^ silver, iewells, and rich feathers, with a great 
number of captives. In this battaile there were three of the 
principals of Culhuacan that came to aide the Mexicaines to 
winne honour, the which were remarkable above all. And 
since being knowen to Tlacaellel, and having made proofe 
of their fidelities he gave them Mexicaine devises, and had 
them alwayes by his side, where they fought in all places 
very valiantly. It was apparant that the whole victory was 
due to the Generall and to these three ; for, among so 
many captives taken, two third partes were wonne by these 
foure, which was easily knowen by a policie they vsed : for, 
taking a captive, they presently cut off a little of his haire 
and gave it to others, so as it appeared that those which had 
their haire cut, amounted to that number, whereby they 
wonne great reputation and fame of valiant men. They 
were honoured as conquerors, giving them good portions 
of the spoils and lands, as the Mexicans have alwayes vsed 
to doe, which gave occasion to those that did fight to be- 
come famous, and to winne reputation by armes. 


Chap. xv. — Of the warre and victorie which the Mexicans had 
against the Suchimilcos. 

The Nation of the Tepanecas being subdewed, the Mexi- •^^°- '^"• 
caines had occasion to do the like to the SachimilcoSj who 
(as it hath beene saide) were the first of the seven caves or 
Hneages that peopled this land. The Mexicans sought not 
the occasion_, although they might presume as conquerors 
to extend their limits^ but the Suchimilcos didde moove 
them, to their owne ruine, as it happens to men of small 
iudgement that have no foresight^ who not preventing the 
the mischefe they imagined, fall into it. The Suchimilcos 
held opinion that the Mexicans, by reason of their victories 
past, should attempt to subdue them, and consulted heereon 
amongst themselves. Some among them thought it good 
to acknowledge them for superiors, and to applaude their 
good fortune, but the contrary was allowed, and they went 
out to give them battel ; which Izcoatl the king of Mexico 
vnderstanding, he sent his General Tlacaellel against them, 
with his army ; the battell was fought in the same field 
that divides their limites, which two armies were equall in 
men and armes, but very divers in their order and manner 
of fighting; for that the Suchimilcos charged all together 
on a heape confusedly, and Tlacaellel divided his men into 
squadrons with a goodly order, so as he presently brake his 
ennemies, forcing them to retire into their cittie, into the 
which they entred, following them to the Temple whither 
they fled, which they fiered, and forcing them to flie vnto 
the mountainesj in the end they brought them to this 
poynt, that they yeelded with their armes acrosse. The 
General! Tlacaellel returning in great triumph, the priests 
went foorth to receive him, with their musicke of flutes, 
and giving incense. The chiefs Captaines vsed other cere- 
monies and shews of ioy, as they had bin accustpmed to 


Lib. VII. doe_, and the king with all the troupe went to the Temple, 
to give thanks to their false god, for the divell hath alwayes 
beene very desirous hereof, to challenge to himselfe the 
honor which he deserves not, seeing it is the true God 
which giveth victories, and maketh them to rule whome he 
pleaseth. The day following king Tzcoatl went vnto the 
citty of Suchimilco, causing himselfe to be sworne king of 
the Suchimilcos ; and for their comfort he promised to doe 
them good. In token whereof hee commaunded them to 
make a great cawsey stretching from Mexico to Suchimilco, 
which is foure leagues, to the end there might bee more 
commerce and trafficke amongest them. Which the Suchi- 
milcos performed, and in shorte time the Mexicaine governe- 
ment seemed so good vnto them, as they helde themselves 
happy to have changed their king and commonweale. 
Some neighbors, pricked forward by envy or feare to their 
mines, were not yet made wise by others miseries. 

Cuitlavaca was a citty within the lake, which though the 
name and dwelling be chaunged, continueth yet. They 
were active to swimme in the lake, and therefore they 
thought they might much indomage and annoy the Mexi- 
caines by water, which the King vnderstanding, hee resolved 
to send his army presently to fight against them. But 
Tlacaellel little esteeming this warre, holding it dishonorable 
to lead an army against them, made offer to conquer them 
with the children onely, which he performed in this manor; 
he went vnto the Temple and drew out of the Convent such 
children as he thought fittest for this action, from tenne to 
eighteene yeeres of age, who knew how to guide their 
boates or canoes, teaching them certaine polhcies. The 
order they held in this warre was, that he went to Cuitlavaca 
with his children, where by his pollicy hee pressed the 
ennemy in such sorte, that hee made them to flie ; and as 
he followed them, the lord of Cuitlavaca mette him and 
yeelded vnto him, himselfe, his citty, and his people, and by 


this meanes he stayed the pursuite. The children returned ^^^- '^'"• 
with much spoyle^ and many captives for their sacrifices, 
being solemnely received with a great procession, musike 
and perfumes, and they went to worshippe their gods, in 
taking of the earth which they did eate, and drawing blood 
from the forepart of their legges with the Priests lancets, 
with other superstitions which they were accustomed to vse 
in the like solemnities. The children were much honoured 
and incoraged, and the king imbraced and kissed them, and 
his kinsmen and alies accompanied them. The bruite of 
this victorie ranne throughout all the country, how that 
Tlacaellec had subdued the city of Cuitlavaca with children; 
the news and consideration whereof opened the eyes of 
those of Tezcuco, a chiefs and very cunning Nation for 
their manner of life; So as the king of Tezcuco was first 
of opinion, that they should subiect themselves to the 
king of Mexico, and invite him therevnto with his cittie. 
Therefore by the advise of his Counsell, they sent Am- 
bassadors, good Orators, with honorable presents, to offer 
themselves vnto the Mexicans, as their subiects, desiring 
peace and amitie, which was gratiously accepted ; but by 
the advise of Tlacaellec he vsed a ceremony for the effecting 
thereof, which was that those of Tezcuco should come 
forth armed against the Mexicans, where they should fight, 
and presently yeelde, which was an act and ceremony of 
warre, without any effusion of bloud on either side. Thus 
the king of Mexico became soveraigne Lord of Tezcaco, 
but hee tooke not their kiug from them, but made him of 
his privie counsell, so as they have alwayes maintained 
themselves in this manner vntill the time of Mote^uma the 
second, during whose raigne the Spaniards entred. Having 
subdued the land and citty of Tezcuco, Mexico remained 
Lady and Mistris of all the landes and citties about the 
Lake, where it is built. Izcoatl having enioyed this pros- 
peritie, and raigned twelve yeeres, died, leaving the realme 

Lib. VII. 


which had beene given him much augmented by the valour 
and counsell of his nephew Tlacaellel (as hath afore beene 
saide) who held it best to choose an other king then him- 
selfe, as shall heereafter be shewed. 

Chap. xvi. — Of the fift King of Mexico, called MonteQuma, 
the first of that name. 

Forasmuch as the election of the new King belonged to 
foure chiefe Electors (as hath been said), and to the King of 
Tezcuco, and the King of Tacuba, by especiall priviledge ; 
Tlacaellel assembled these six personages, as he that had 
the soveraigne authoritie, and having propounded the matter 
vnto them_, they made choise of Monteguma, the first of that 
name, nephew to the same Tlacaellel. His election was 
very pleasing to them all, by reason whereof they made 
most solemne feasts, and more stately then the former. 
Presently after his election, they conducted him to the 
Temple with a great traine, where before the divine harth 
(as they call it) where there is continuall fire, they set him 
in his royall throne, putting vpon him his royall ornaments. 
Being there, the King drew blood from his eares and the 
calves of his legs, and his shins, with certain pointed 
instruments of a tiger and of a deer, used for that pur- 
pose, which was the sacrifice wherein the divell delighted 
to be honoured. The Priests, Antients, and Captaines 
made their orations, all congratulating his election. They 
were accustomed in their elections to make great feasts 
and dances, where they wasted many lightes. In this 
Kings time the custome was brought in, that the King 
should go in person to make warre in some province, 
and bring captives to solemnize the feast of his corona- 
tion, and for the solemne sacrifices of that day. For 
this cause King Monteguma went into the province of 


ChalcOj inhabited by a warlike people; from whence (having ^^=- 
fought valiantly) he brought a great number of captives, 
whereof he did make a notable sacrifice the day of his 
coronation, although at that time he did not subdue all the 
province of Chalco, being a very warlike nation. Many 
came to this coronation from divers provinces, as well neere 
as farre off, to see the feast, at the which all commers were 
very bountifully entertained and clad, especially the poore, 
to whom they gave new garments. For this cause they 
brought that day into the cittie, the Kings tributes, with 
a goodly order, which consisted in stuffes to make garments 
of all sorts, in cacao, gold, silver, rich feathers, great 
burthens of cotton, cucumbers, sundry sortes of pulses, 
many kindes of sea fish, and of the fresh water, great store 
of fruites, and venison without number, not reckoning an 
infinite number of presents, which other kings and lords 
sent to the new king. All this tribute marched in order 
according to the provinces, and before them the stewards 
and receivers, with divers markes and ensignes, in very 
goodly order ; so as it was one of the goodliest things of 
the feast, to see the entry of the tribute. The King being 
crowned, he imploied himselfe in the conquest of many 
provinces, and for that he was both valiant and vertuous, 
bee still increased more and more, vsing in all his affaires 
the counsell and industry of his generall Tlacaellel, whom 
he did alwaies lov« and esteeme very much, as hee had good 
reason. The warre wherein hee was most troubled and of 
greatest difficultie, was that of the province of Chalco, 
wherein there happened great matters, whereof one was 
very remarkable, which was, that they of Chalco had taken 
a brother of Montezuma in the warres, whome they re- 
solved to choose for their king, asking him very curteously 
if he would accept of this charge. He answered (after 
much importunity, still persisting therein), that if they 
meant plainely to choose him for their king, they should 



Lib. VII. plant in fhe market place a tree or very high stake,, on the 
toppe whereof they should make a little scaffold, and meanes 
to mount vnto it. The Chalcos supposing it had beene 
some ceremony to make himselfe more apparent^ presently 
effected it ; then assembling all his Mexicaines about the 
stake^ he went to the toppe with a garland of flowers in his 
hand^ speaking to his men in this manor, '^ valiant Mexi- 
caines, these men will choose mee for their King ; but the 
gods will not permit that to be a King I should coramitte 
any treason against my countrie, but contrariwise, I wil that 
you learne by me that it behoveth vs rather to indure death 
then to ayde our enemies.'^ Saying these wordes he cast 
himselfe downe, and was broken in a thousand peeces, at 
which spectacle the Chalcos had so great horror and dispite, 
that presently they fell vpon the Mexicaines and slew them 
all with their launces, as men whom they held too prowde 
and inexorable, saying, they had divelish hearts. It chanced 
the night following, they heard two owles making a mourne- 
full cry, which they did interpret as an vnfortunate signe, 
and a presage of their neere destruction, as it succeeded ; 
for King Montezuma went against them in person with all 
his power, where he vanquished them, and ruined all their 
kingdome ; and passing beyond the Sierra Nevada, hee 
conquered still even vnto the North sea. Then returning 
towards the South sea, hee subdued many provinces, so as 
he became a mighty King, all by the helpe and counsell of 
Tlacaellel, who in a manner conquered all the Mexicaine 
nation. Yet hee held an opinion (the which was confirmed) 
that it was not* behoovefull to conquer the province of Tlas- 
calla, that the Mexicaines might have a fronter enemy, to 
keepe the youth of Mexico in exercise and allarme ; and 
that they might have numbers of captives to sacrifice to 
their idols, wherein they did waste (as hath beene said) 
infinite numbers of men, which should bee taken by force 
in the warres. The honour must be given to Monteguma, or 


to speake truly, to Tlacaellel his Generall, for the good lib. vi 
order and policy setled in the realme of Mexico,, as also for 
the counsells and goodly enterprises which they did execute; 
and likewise for the numbers of Judges and Magistrates, 
being as well ordered there as in any common-weale; yea, 
were it in the most flourishing of Europe. This King did 
also greatly increase the King's house, giving it great 
authoritie, and appointing many and sundry officers, which 
served him with great pompe and ceremony. Hee was no 
lesse remarkable touching the devotion and service of his 
idolls, increasing the number of his Ministers and instituting 
new ceremonies, wherevnto hee carried a great respect. 

Hee built that great temple dedicated to their god Yitzil- 
ipuztli, whereof is spoken in the other Booke. He did 
sacrifice at the dedication of this temple, a great number of 
men, taken in sundry victories : finally inioying his Empire 
in great prosperitie ; hee fell sicke, and died, having 
raigned twenty-eight yeares, vnlike to his successor Ticocic, 
who did not resemble him, neither in valour, nor in good 

Chap. xvii. — How Tlacaellel refused to he King, and of 
the election and deedes of Ticocic. 

The foure Deputies assembled in counsell, with the lords 
of Tezcuco and Tacuba, where Tlacaellel was President 
in the election, where by all their voices Tlacaellel was 
chosen, as deserving this charge better than any other. Yet 
he refused it, perswading them by pertinent reasons that 
they should choose another, saying, that it was better and 
more expedient to have another king, and he to be his 
instrument and assistant, as hee had beene till then, and 
not to lay the whole burthen vpon him, for that he held 
himselfe no lesse bound for the Common-weale, then if hee 


Lis. VII. were king. It is a rare thing to refuse principalitie and 
commaundj and to indure the paine and the care, and not 
to reape the honour. There are few that will yeeld vp the 
power and authority which they may hold, were it profitable 
to the common-weale. This Barbarian did heerein exceed 
the wisest amongst the Greekes and Romans, and it may be 
a lesson to Alexander and lulius Caesar, whereof the one 
held it little to command the whole world, putting his most 
deere and faithfull servants to death vpon some small 
iealosies of rule and empire : and the other declared him- 
selfe enemy to his country, saying, that if it were lawfall to 
do anything against law and reason, it was for a kingdome : 
such is the thirst and desire of commaund. Although this 
acte of Tlacaellels might well proceede from too great a 
confidence of himselfe, seeming to him, though he were not 
king, yet in a manor that he commanded kings, sufiering 
him to carry certaine markes, as a tiara or ornament 
for the head, which belonged onely to themselves. Yet this 
act deserves greater commendation, and to be well con- 
sidered of, in that ho held opinion to be better able to serve 
his common-weale as a subiect, then being a soveraigne 
Lord. And as in a comedie he deserves most commend- 
ation that represents the personage that imports most, bee 
it of a sheepheard or a peasant, and leave the King or Cap- 
taine to him that can performe it : so in good Philosophy, 
men ought to have a special regard to the common good, 
and apply themselves to that office and place which they 
best vnderstand. But this philosophic is farre from that 
which is practised at this day. But let vs return to our 
discourse, and say, that in recompense of his modestie, and 
for the respect which the Mexicaine Electors bare him, they 
demanded of Tlacaellel (that seeing he would not raigne) 
whom he thought most fit : wherevpon he gave his voice to 
a Sonne of the deceased king, who was then very yong, 
called Ticocic : but they replied that his shoulders were 


veiy weake to beare so heavy a burthen. TIacaellel answered 
that he was there to help him to beare the burthen, as he 
had done to the deceased : by meanes whereof they 
tooke their resolution, and Ticocic was chosen, to whom 
were done all the accustomed ceremonies. 

They pierced his nosthrils, and for an ornament put an 
emerald therein : and for this reason, in the Mexicaine 
bookes, this king is noted by his nosthrills pierced. Hee 
differed much from his father and predecessor, being noted 
for a coward, and not ^^aliant. He went to make warre for 
his coronation, in a province that was rebelled, where he 
lost more of his own men then hee tooke captives ; yet he 
returned, saying, that hee brought the number of captives 
required for the sacrifice of his coronation, and so hee was 
crowned with great solemuitie. But the Mexicaines, dis- 
contented to have a king so little disposed to warre, prac- 
tised to hasten his death by poison. For this cause hee 
continued not above fourej^eares in the kingdome : whereby 
wee see that the children do not alwaies follow the blood 
and valour of their fathers ; and the greater the glorie 
of the predecessors hath beene, the more odious is the 
weakenes and cowardise of such that succeed them in com- 
mand, and not in merit. But this losse was well repaired 
by a brother of the deceased, who was also sonne to great 
Montezuma, called Axayaca, who was likewise chosen by the 
advice of TIacaellel, wherein hee happened better than 

Lib. VII, 

Chap, xviii. — Of the death of TIacaellel , and the deedes 
of Axayaca, the seventh King of Mexicaines. 

Now was TIacaellel very old, who by reason of his age, 
he was carried in a chaire upon mens shoulders, to assist in 
counsell when busines required. In the end hee fell sicke, 
whenas the king (who was not yet crowned), did visit him 


Lib. VII. often, sheading many teares, seeming to loose in him his 
father, and the father of his countrie. Tlacaellel did most 
affectionately recommend his children vnto him, especially 
the eldest, who had showed himselfe valiant in the former 
warres. The king promised to have regard vnto him, and the 
more to comfort the olde man, in his presence he gave him the 
charge and ensignes of Captaine Generall, with all the pre- 
eminences of his father ; wherewith the old man remained 
so well satisfied, as with this content he ended his daies. If 
hee had not passed to another life, -they might have held 
themselves very happy, seeing that of so poore and small a 
cittie, wherein he was borne, he established, by his valour 
and magnanimitie, so great, so rich, and so potent a king- 
dome. The Mexicans made his funerall, as the founder 
of that Empire, more sumptuous and stately, then they had 
done to their former kings. And presently after Axayaca, 
to appease the sorrow which all the people of Mexico 
shewed for the death of their captaine, resolved to make the 
expedition necessary for his coronation. Hee therefore led 
his army with great expedition into the province of Tehuan- 
tepec, two hundred leagues from Mexico, where he gave 
battaile to a mighty army and an infinite number of men 
assembled together, as well out of that province, as from 
their neighbours, to oppose themselves against the Mexi- 
cans. The first of his campe that advanced himselfe to the 
combate, was the King himselfe, defying his ennemies, from 
whome hee made shewe to fly when they charged him, 
vntill he had drawne them into an ambuscadoe, where 
many souldiers lay hidden vnder straw, who suddenly issued 
forth, and they which fled, turned head : so as they of 
Tehuantepec remained in the midst of them, whom they 
charged furiously, making a great slaughter of them : and 
following their victory, they razed their citty and temple, 
punishing all their neighbours rigorously. Then went they 
on farther, and without any stay, conquered to Guatulco, 


the which is a port at this day well knowne in the South ^^^- '^"• 
sea. Axayaca returned to Mexico with great and rich 
spoiles, where he was honourably crowned, with sumptuous 
and stately preparation of sacrifices, tributes, and other 
things, whither many came to see his coronation. The 
Kings of Mexico received the crowne from the hands of the 
King of Tezcuco, who had the preeminence. He made 
many other enterprises, where he obtained great victories, 
being alwaies the first to leade the army, and to charge the 
enemy ; by the which hee purchased the name of a most 
valiant captaine : and not content to subdue strangers, he 
also suppressed his subiects which had rebelled, which 
never any of his predecessors ever could doe, or durst 
attempt. We have already shewed how some seditious of 
Mexico had divided themselves from that common-weale, 
and built a cittie neare vnto them, which they called 
Tlatellulco, whereas now Santiago is. 

These being revolted, held a faction aparte, and encreased 
and multiplied much, refusing to acknowledge the kings of 
Mexico, nor to yeeld them obedience. The king Axayaca 
sent to advise them not to live divided, but being of one 
bloud, and one people, to ioyne together, and acknowledge 
the king of Mexico : wherevpon the Lorde of Tlatellulco 
made an aunswere full of pride and disdaine, defieing the 
king of Mexico to single combat with himselfe : and pre- 
sently mustred his men, commaunding some of them to hide 
themselves in the. weeds of the Lake; and the better to 
deceive the Mexicans, he commaunded them to take the 
shapes of ravens, geese, and other beasts, as frogs, and such 
like, supposing by this meanes to surprise the Mexicans as 
they should passe by the waies and cawsies of the Lake. 
Having knowledge of this defiance, and of his adversaries 
policie, he divided his army, giving a part to his generall, 
the Sonne of Tlacaellel, commaunding him to charge this 
ambuscadoe in the Lake ; and he with the rest of his people. 


Lid. VII. ]jy g^j^ vnfrequented way, went and incamped before 
Tlatellulco. Presently Lee called him who had defied him to 
performe his promise, and as the two Lordes of Mexico and 
Tlatellulco advaunced, they commaunded their subiects not 
to moove, vntill they had seene who should be conquerour, 
which was done, and presently the two Lordes in countered 
valiantly, where having fought long, in the end the Lorde 
of Tlatellulco was forced to turne his backe, being vnable to 
indure the furious charge of the king of Mexico. Those of 
Tlatellulco seeing their captain e flie, fainted, and fled like- 
wise, but the Mexicans following them at the heeles, charged 
them furiously : yet the Lord of Tlatellulco escaped not the 
hands of Axayaca, for thinking to sshvo himselfe, he fled to 
the toppe of the temple, but Axayaca folowed hira so neere, 
as he seised on him with great force, and threw him from 
the toppe to the bottome, and after set fire on the temple 
and the cittie. Whilest this passed at Tlatellulco, the Mex- 
icane generall was very hote in the revenge of those that 
pretended to defeate him by pollicie, and after he had 
forced them to yeelde, and to cry for mercy, the general 
sayed he would not pardon them vntil they had first 
performed the offices of those figures they represented, 
and therefore he would have them crie like frogges and 
ravens, every one according to the figure which he had 
vndertaken, else they had no composition : which thing he 
did to mocke them with their own policie. Feare and 
necessitie be perfect teachers ; so as they did sing and crie 
with all the differences of voyces that were commaunded 
them, to save their lives, although they were much grieved 
at the sport their enimies made at them. They say that 
vnto this day, the Mexicans vse to ieast at the Tlatellulcans, 
which they beare impatiently, when they putte them in 
minde of this singing and crying of beasts. King Axayaca 
tooke pleasure at this scorne and disgrace, and presently 
after they returned to Mexico with great ioy. This king 


was esteemed for one of the best that had commauuded in ^"' ^"• 
Mexico. Hee raigned eleaven yeares, and one succeeded 
that was much inferiour vnto him in valour and vertue. 

Chap. xtx. — Of the deedes of Autzol the eighth King of 


Among the foure Electors that had power to chuse whome 
they pleased to be king, there was one indued with many 
perfections, named Autzol. This man was chosen by the 
rest, and this election was very pleasing to all the people : 
for besides that he was valiant, all held him curteous and 
affable to every man, which is one of the chief qualities 
required in them that commaund, to purchase love and 
respect. To celebrate the feast of his coronation, hee re- 
solved to make a voyage, and to punish the pride of those of 
Quaxutatlan, a very rich and plentifull province, and at this 
day the chiefe of New Spaine. They had robbed his officers 
and stewards, that carried the tribute to Mexico, and there- 
withall had rebelled. There was great difficulty to reduce 
this Nation to obedience, lying in such sort, as an arme of 
the sea stopt the Mexicans passage : to passe the which, 
Autzol (with a strange device and industry) caused an Hand 
to be made in the water, of faggots, earth, and other mat- 
ter; by meanes whereof, both hee and his men might passe 
to the enemy, where giving them battell, he conquered them 
and punished them at his pleasure. Then returned hee 
vnto Mexico in triumph, and with great riches, to bee 
crowned King, according to their custome. Autzol ex- 
tended the limits of his kingdome farre, by many conquests, 
even vnto Guatimala, which is three hundred leagues 
from Mexico. He was no less liberall than valiant : for 
whenas the tributes arrived (which as I have saide) came in 
great aboundaunce, hee went foorth of his pallace, gathering 

K K 


Lib. VII. together all the people into one place, then commaanded he 
to bring all the tributes, which hee divided to those that 
had neede. To the poore he gave stufFes to make apparrell, 
and meate, and whatsoever they had neede of in great 
aboundaunce, and things of value, as golde, silver, iewels, 
and feathers, were divided amongst the captaines, souldiers, 
and servants of his house, according to every man's merite. 
This Autzol was likewise a great polititian, hee pulled 
downe the houses ill built, and built others very sumptuous. 
It seemed vnto him that the city of Mexico had too litle 
water, and that the lake was very muddy, and therefore hee 
resolved to let in a great course of water, which they of 
Cuyoacan vsed. For this cause he called the chiefe man of 
the cittie vnto him, being a famous sorcerer; having pro- 
pounded his meaning vnto him, the sorcerer wished him to 
be well advised what hee did, being a matter of great diffi- 
culty, and that hee vnderstoode, if he drew the river out of 
her ordinary course, making it passe to Mexico, hee would 
drowne the citty. The king supposed these excuses were 
but to frustrate the effect of his designe, being therefore 
in choler, he dismissed him home ; and a few dayes after 
hee sent a provost to Cuyoacan, to take this sorcerer : who, 
having understanding for what intent the king's officers 
came, he caused them to enter his house, and then he pre- 
sented himself vnto them in the forme of a terrible eagle, 
wherewith the provost and his companions being terrified, 
they returned without taking him. Autzol, incensed here- 
with, sent others, to whome hee presented himselfe in forme 
of a furious tygre, so as they durst not touch him. The 
third came, and they found him in the forme of a horrible 
serpent, whereat they were much afraide. The king mooved 
the more with these dooiugs, sent to tell them of Cuj^oacan, 
that if they brought not the sorcerer bound vnto him, he 
would raze their citty. For feare whereof, or whether it 
were of his owne free will, or being forced by the people. 


he suffered himselfe to be led to the kinge, who presently '^^^^ 
caused him to be strangled^ and then did he put his reso- 
lution in practise^ forcing a chanell whereby the water 
might passe to Mexico^ whereby hee brought a great cur- 
rent of water into the la^e, which they brought with great 
ceremonies and superstitions, having priests casting incense 
along the banks, others sacrificed quailes, and with the 
blond of them sprinckled the channell bankes, others 
sounding of cornets, accompanied the water with their 
musicke. One of the chiefe went attired in a habite like to 
their goddesse of the water, and all saluted her^, saying, 
that shee was welcome. All which things are painted in 
the Annales of Mexico : which booke is now at Rome in 
the holy library, or Yaticane, where a father of our company, 
that was come from Mexico, did see it, and other histories, 
the which he did expound to the keeper of his Holinesse 
library, taking great dehght to vnderstand this booke^ 
which before hee could never comprehend. Finally, the 
water was brought to Mexico, but it came in such abound- 
aunce, that it had welneere drowned the cittie, as was fore- 
told : and in effect it did mine a great parte thereof, but it 
was presently prevented by the industry of Autzol, who 
caused an issue to be made to draw foorth the water : by 
meanes whereof hee repaired the buildings that were fallen, 
with an exquisite worke, being before but poore cottages. 
Thus he left the citty invironed with water, like another 
Venice, and very well built : he raigned eleven yeares, 
and ended with the last and greatest successor of all the 

Chap. xx. — Of the election of great Montequma, the last 

King of Mexico, 

When the Spaniards entered new Spaine, being in the 
yeare of our Lorde one thousand five hundred and eighteen, 

K k2 


Lib. VII. Montequma, second of that name, was the last king of the 
Mexicaines ; I say the last, although they of Mexico, after 
his death, chose another king, yea, in the life of the same 
Monte9uma, whom they declared an enemy to his country, 
as we shall see hereafter. But he that succeeded him, and 
hee that fell into the hands of the Marquis del Yalle,-*^ had 
but the names and titles of Kings, for that the kingdome 
was in a manor al yeelded to the Spaniards : so as with 
reason we account Montezuma for the last king, and so hee 
came to the periode of the Mexicaine's power and great- 
nesse, which is admirable, being happened among Bar- 
barians : for this cause, and for that this was the season 
that God had chosen to reveale vnto them the knowledge 
of his Gospel, and the kingdome of lesus Christ, I will re- 
late more at large the actes of Montezuma, then of the rest. 
Before he came to be king, he was by disposition very 
grave and stayed, and spake little, so as when he gave his 
opinion in the privy counsell, whereat he assisted, his 
speeches and discourses made every one to admire him, so 
as even then he was feared and respected. He retired 
himselfe usually into a Chappell, appointed for him in the 
Temple of Vitzilipuztli, where they said their Idoll spake 
vnto him ; and for this cause hee was helde very religious 
and devout. For these perfections then, being most noble 
and of great courage, his election was short and easie, as a 
man upon whom al men's eyes were fixed, as woorthy of 
such a charge. Having intelligence of this election, hee 
hidde himselfe in this chappell of the Temple, whether it 
were by iudgement (apprehending so heavy and hard a 
burthen as to govern such a people), or rather, as I believe, 
through hypocrisie, to show that he desired not Empire. In 
the end they found him, and led him to the place of coun- 
cell, whither they accompanied him with all possible ioy. 
Hee marched with such a gravitie, as they all sayd the name 
of Monte9uma agreed very wel with his nature, which is as 

' Hernan Cortes. 


much to say_, an angry Lord. The electors did him great ^^^- ^n. 
reverence, giving him notice that hee was chosen king : 
from thence he was ledde before the harth of their gods, to 
give incense, where he offered sacrifices in drawing bloud 
from his eares, and the calves of his legges, according to 
their custome. They attired him with the royall ornaments_, 
and pierced the gristle of his nostrils, hanging thereat a 
rich emerald, a barbarous and troublous custom, but the 
desire of rule made all paine light and easy. Being seated 
in his throne, he gave audience to the Orations and Speeches 
that were made vnto him, which, according vnto their 
custome were eloquent and artificiall. The first was pro- 
nounced by the King of Tezcuco, which, being preserved, 
for that it was lately delivered, and very worthy to be 
heard, I will set it downe word by word, and thus hee 
sayde : ^^ The concordance and vnitie of voyces upon thy 
election, is a suflScient testimonie (most noble yong man) of 
the happines the realme shall receive, as well deserving to 
be commaunded by thee, as also for the generall applause 
which all doe show by means thereof Wherein they have 
great reason, for the Empire of Mexico doth alreadie so 
farre extend it selfe, that to governe a world, as it is, and 
to beare so heavy a burthen, it requires no lesse dexteritie 
and courage, than that which is resident in thy firm and 
valiant heart, nor of lesse wisedome and iudgement than 
thine. I see and know plainely, that the mightie God 
loveth this Cittie, seeing he hath given vnderstanding to 
choose what was fit. For who will not believe that a 
Prince, who before his raigne had pierced the nine vaultes 
of heaven, should not likewise nowe obtaine those things 
that are earthlie to releeve his people, aiding himselfe with 
his best iudgement, being thereunto bound by the dutie 
and charge of a king. Who will likewise beleeve that the 
great courage which thou hast alwaies valiantly showed in 
matters of importance, shuld now faile thee in matters of 


Lib. VII. greatest need ? Who will not perswade himselfe but the 
Mexicaine Empire is come to the height of their sove- 
raignetie^ seeing* the Lorde of things created hath imparted 
so great graces vnto thee^ that with thy looke onelie thou 
breedest admiration in them that beholde thee ? Rejoice, 
then, happy land, to whom the Creator hath given a 
Prince, as a firme pillar to support thee, which shall be thy 
father and thy defence, by whom thou shalt be succoured 
at neede, who wil be more than a brother to his subiects, 
for his pietie and clemencie. Thou hast a king, who in 
regard of his estate is not inclined to delights, or will lie 
stretched out upon his bed, occupied in pleasures and vices; 
but contrariwise in the middest of his sweete and pleasant 
sleepe, hee will sodainely awake, for the care he must have 
over thee, and will not feele the taste of the most savourie 
meates, having his spirites transported with the imagination 
of thy good. Tell mee, then (0 happy realme), if I have 
not reason to say that thou oughtest reioyce, having found 
such a King. And thou noble yong man, and our most 
mightie Lorde, be confident, and of good courage, that 
seeing the Lorde of things created hath given thee this 
charge, hee will also give thee force and courage to man- 
nage it : and thou maiest well hope, that he which in times 
past hath vsed so great bountie towardes thee, wil not now 
denie thee his greater gifts, seeing he hath given thee so 
great a charge, which I wish thee to enioy manie yeares. 
King MonteQuma was very attentive to this Discourse, which, 
being ended, they say he was so troubled, that indevouring 
thrice to answer him, hee could not speake, being overcome 
with teares, which ioy and content doe vsually cause, in 
signe of great humilitie. In the end, being come to him- 
selfe, he spake briefly, ^^ I were too blinde, good king of 
Tezcuco, if I did not know, that what thou hast spoken 
vnto me, proceeded of meere favour, it pleaseth you to show 
me, seeing among so manie noble and valiant men within 


this realme_, you have made choise of the least sufficient : ^^^- ^"• 
and in trueth_, I find myself so incapable of a charge of so 
great importance, that I know not what to doe, but to 
beseech the Creator of all created things, that he will 
favour mee, and I intreate you all to pray unto him for me/^ 
These words uttered, hee began again to weepe. 

Chap. xxi.. — IIoiu Montezuma ordered the service of his houses 
arid of the ivarre hee made for his coronation. 

He that in his election made such shew of humilitie 
and mildenes, seeing himselfe king, beganne presently to 
discover his aspiring thoughts. The first was, he com- 
maunded that no plebeian should serve in his house, nor 
beare any royall office, as his predecessours had vsed till 
then ; blaming them that would be served by men of base 
condition, commaunding that all the noble and most famous 
men of his realme should live within his pallace^ and exer- 
cise the offices of his court, and house. Wherevnto an olde 
man of great authoritie (who had sometimes beene his 
Schoolemaister) opposed himselfe, advising him to be care- 
full what hee did, and not to thrust himselfe into the danger 
of a great inconvenience, in separating himselfe from the 
vulgare and common people, so as they should not dare to 
looke him in the face, seeing themselves so reiected by him. 
He answered, that it was his resolution, and that he would 
not allow the plebeians to goe thus mingled among the 
Nobles, as they had doone, saying that the service they did 
was according to their condition, so as the kings got no 
reputation, and thus he continued firme in his resolution. 
Hee presently commanded his counsell to dismisse all the 
plebeians from their charges and offices, as well those of his 
houshold as of his court, and to provide knightes, the which 
was done. After, he went in person to an enterprise neces- 

Lib. VII, 


sary for his coronation. At that time a province lying farre 
off towards the North Ocean was revolted from the crowne, 
whither he led the flower of his people, well appointed. 
There he warred with such valour and dexteritie that in the 
end he subdued all the province, and punished the rebells 
severely, returning with a great number of captives for the 
sacrifices and many other spoiles. All the citties made him 
solemne receptions at his returne, and the Lords thereof 
g-ave him water to wash, performing the offices of servants, 
a thing not vsed by any of his predecessors. Such was the 
feare and respect they bare him. In Mexico they made the 
feasts of his coronation with great preparations of dances, 
comedies, banquets, lights, and other inventions for many 
daies. And there came so great a wealth of tributes from 
all his countries that strangers vnknowne came to Mexico, 
and their very enemies resorted in great numbers disguised 
to see these feasts, as those of Tlascala and Mechoacan : 
the which Montequma having discovered, he commanded 
they should be lodged and gently in treated, and honoured 
as his own person. He also made them goodly galleries 
like vnto his owne, where they might see and behold the 
feasts. So they entred by night to those feasts, as the 
king himselfe, making their sportes and maskes. And for 
that I have made mention of these provinces, it shall not be 
from the purpose to vnderstand that the inhabitants of 
Mechoacan, Tlascala, and Tepeaca, would never yeelde to 
the Mexicans, but did alwaies fight valiantly against them ; 
yea, sometimes the Mechoacans did vanquish the Mexicans, 
as also those of Tepeaca did. In which place the Marquis 
Don Fernando Cortes, after that he and the Spaniards were 
expelled Mexico, pretended to build their first cittie, the 
which he called (if I remember rightly) Segura de la Fron- 
tera. But this peopling continued little : for having after- 
wards reconquered Mexico, all the Spaniards went to inha- 
bite there. To conclude, those of Tepeaca, Tlascala, and 


Mechoacan have beene alwaies enemies to the Mexicans, lib. vn. 
although MonteQuma said vnto Cortes that he did purposely 
forbeare to subdue them, to have occasion to exercise his 
men of warre, and to take numbers of captives. 

Chap. xxii. — Of the heJiaviour and greatnes of Monteguma. 

This King laboured to be respected, yea, to be worshipped 
as a god. No Plebeian might looke him in the face ; if he 
did, he was punished with death : he did never set his foote 
on the ground, but was alwaies carried on the shoulders of 
Noblemen ; and if he lighted, they laid rich tapestry where- 
on he did go. When he made any voyage, hee and the 
Noblemen went as it were in a parke compassed in for the 
nonce, and the rest of the people went without the parke, 
invironing it in on every side ; hee never put on a garment 
twice, nor did eate or drinke in one vessell or dish above 
once j all must be new, giving to his attendants that which 
had once served him : so as commonly they were rich and 
sumptuous. He was very carefull to have his lawes ob- 
served. And when he returned victor from any warre, he 
fained sometimes to go and take his pleasure, then would 
he disguise himselfe, to see if his people (supposing if he 
weare absent) would omitte any thing of the feast or recep- 
tion. If there were any excesse or defect, he then did 
punish it rigorously. And also to discerne how his minis- 
ters did execute their offices, he often disguised himselfe, 
offering giftes and presents to the iudges, provoking them 
to do iniustice. If they offended, they were presently 
punished with death, without remission or respect, were 
they Noblemen or his kinsmen ; yea, his owne brethren. 
He was little conversant with his people, and seldome 
scene, retyring himselfe most commonly to care for the 



Lib. VII. government of his realme. Besides that hee was a great 
iusticier and very noble, hee was very valiant and happy, 
by meanes whereof hee obtained great victories, and came 
to this greatnes, as is written in the Spanish histories, 
whereon it seemes needelesse to write more. I will onely 
have a care heereafter to write what the bookes and histo- 
ries of the Indies make mention of, the which the Spanish 
writers have not observed^ having not sufficiently vnder- 
stood the secrets of this country, the which are things very 
worthy to be knowne^ as we shall see heereafter. 

Hier. X. 

Lib. ix de 

Monst. i. 

2 Mac. 5. 

Chap, xxiii. — Of the presages and strange prodigies which 
happened in Mexico before the fall of their Empire. 

Although the holy Scripture forbids vs to give credite to 
signes and vaine prognostications, and that S. lerome doth 
admonish vs not to feare tokens from heaven, as the Gen- 
tiles do : yet the same Scripture teacheth vs that monstrous 
and prodigious signes are not altogether to bee contemned, 
and that often they are fore-runners of some generall 
changes and chasticements which God will take, as Euse- 
bius notes well of Cesarea. For that the same Lord of 
heaven and earth sondes such prodiges and new things in 
heaven, in the elements, in beasts, and in his other crea- 
tures, that this might partly serve as an advertisement to 
men, and to be the beginning of the paine and chastise- 
ment, by the feare and amazement they bring. It is written 
in the second booke of Macabees that before that great 
change and persecution of the people of Israel, which was 
caused by the tyranny of Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes, 
whome the holy Scriptures call the root of sinne/ there were 
scene for forty dayes together thorowout all lerusalem great 
squadrons of horsemen in the ayre, who with their armour 
guilt, their lances and targets, and vppon furious horses, 


with their swordes drawne did strike, skirmish and incoun- ^i^- ^'"• 

ter one against the other : and they say that the inhabitants i Mac. i. 
of Jerusalem seeing this, they prayed to our Lord to appease 
his wrath, and that these prodegies might turne to good. 
It is likewise written in the booke of Wisedome^ That when Sap. vii. 
God would drawe his people out of Egypt, and punish the 
Egyptians, some terrible and fearefull visions appeared vnto 
them_, as fires seene out of time in horrible formes. loseph 
in his booke of the lewish warres sheweth many and great 
wonders going before the destruction of Jerusalem, and the 
last captivitie of his wicked people^ whome Grod iustly ab- 
horred : and Eusebius of Cesarea. with others, alleado^e the Euseb.,iib. 

1, de eccles. 

same texts, authorizing prognostications. The Histories ^^^t. 
are full of like observations in great changes of states and 
commonwe^iles, as Paulus Orosius witnesseth of many : and 
without doubt this observation is not vaine nor vnprofit- 
able j for although it be vanitie, yea, superstition, forbidden 
by the lawe of our God, lightly to beleeve these signes and 
tokens, yet in matters of great moment, as in the changes 
of nations, kingdoms, and notable laws, it is no vaine 
thing, but rather certaine and assured, to beleeve that the 
wisdom e of the most High dooth dispose and suffer these 
things, foretelling what shoulde happen, to serve (as I have 
saide) for an advertisement to some and a chasticement to 
others, and as a witnes to all, that the king of heaven hath 
a care of man : who as he hath appointed great and fearefull 
tokens of that great change of the world, which shall bee the 
day of iudgement, so doth it please him to send wonderful 
signes to demonstrate lesser changes in divers partes of the 
world, the which are remarkable, whereof he disposeth 
according to his eternall wisdome. Wee must also vnder- 
stand that although the divell be the father of lies, yet the 
King of Glorie makes him often to confesse the trueth 
against his will, which hee hath often declared for very Mat. i. 
feare, as hee did in the desart by the mouth of the pos- ^^^^ iv. 


Lib. VII. sessed_, crying, that lesus was the Saviour come to destroy 
r~ him, as he did bv the Pythoness, who saide that Paul 

Acts XXVI. J ,1 3 

preached the true God, as when he appeared and troubled 
Pilate^s wife, whom he made to mediate for lesus a iust 
man. And as many other histories besides the holy Scrip- 
ture gave diverse testimonies of idols^ in approbation of 
christian religion^ wherof Lactantius, Prosperus_, and others 
make mention. Let them reade Eusebius in his bookes of 
the preparation of the Gospel^ and those of his demonstra- 
tions where he doth amply treate of this matter. I have 
purposely spoken this, that no man should contemne what 
is written in the Histories and Annales of the Indies touch- 
ing presages and strange signes, of the approching end 
and ruine of their kingdome, and of the Divelles tyranny, 
whom they worshipped altogether. Which in ,my opinion 
is worthy of credite and beliefe, both for that it chanced 
late_, and the memory is yet fresh, as also for that it is 
likely that the Divell lamented at so great a change, and 
that God by the same meanes begane to chastice their 
cruell and abominable idolatries. I will therefore set them 
downe heere as true things. It chanced that Montezuma 
having raigned many yeers in great prosperity, and so 
pufft vp in his conceit, as hee caused himselfe to be served 
and feared, yea, to be worshipped as a god, that the 
Almighty Lord beganne to chastice him, and also to admo- 
nish him, suffering even the very Divelles whome he wor- 
shipped to tell him these heavy tidings of the ruine of his 
kingdome, and to torment him by visions, which had never 
bin seen ; wherewith hee remained so melancholy and 
troubled, as he was voyde of iudgement. The idoll of those 
of Cholula, which they called Quetzalcoatl, declared that a 
strange people came to possesse his kingdomes. The king 
of Tezcuco (who was a great Magitian, and had conference 
with the Divell) came one day at an extraordinarie houre to 
visite Montezuma, assuring him that his gods had tolde him 


that there were great losses preparing for him and for 
his whole realme : many witches and sorcerers went and 
declared as much ; amongst which there was one did very 
particularly foretell him what should happen : and as he 
was with him hee tolde him that the pulses of his feete and 
hands failed him. Montezuma, troubled with these news, 
commanded all those sorcerers to be apprehended : but 
they vanished presently in the prison, wherewith hee grewe 
into such a rage, that hee might not kill them, as hee putte 
their wives and children to death, destroying their houses 
and families. Seeing himselfe importuned and troubled 
with those advertisements, he sought to appease the anger 
of his gods : and for that cause hee laboured to bring a 
huge stone, thereon to make great sacrifices. For the 
effecting whereof hee sent a great number of people with 
engines and instruments to bring it : which they could by no 
meanes moove, although (being obstinate) they had broken 
many instruments. But as they strove still to raise it they 
heard a voyce ioyning to the stone, which said they laboured 
in vaine, and that they should not raise it, for that the 
Lorde of things created would no more suffer those things 
to be doone there. Montecuma, vnderstanding this, com- 
maunded the sacrifice to be perfourmed in that place, and 
they say the voyce spake againe : ^^ Have I not told you 
that it is not the pleasure of the Lord of things created that 
it should be done : and that you may well know that it is 
so, I will suffer my selfe to be transported a little, then 
after you shall not moove mee^\ Which happened so in- 
deede ; for presently they carried it a small distance with 
great facility, then afterwards they could not moove it, till 
that after many prayers it suffered it selfe to be transported 
to the entry of the citty of Mexico, where sodainly it fel 
into the Lake, where, seeking for it, they could not finde it, 
but it was afterwards found in the same place from whence 
they had remooved it, wherewith they remayned amazed 

Lib. VII. 

Lib. vir. 


and confounded. At the same time there appeared in the 
heavens a great flame of fire^ very bright^ in the forme of a 
Pyramide, which beganne to appeare at midnight, and went 
still mounting vntill the Sunne rising in the morning, 
where it stayed at the South, and then vanished away. It 
shewed it self in this sort the space of a whole yeare, and 
ever as it appeared the people cast foorth great cries as 
they were accustomed, beleeving it was a presage of great 
misfortune. It happened also that fire tooke the Temple, 
whenas no body was within it, nor neare vnto it, neither 
did there fall any lightning or thunder : wherevpon the 
guardes crying out, a number of people ran with water, but 
nothing could helpe, so as it was all consumed ; and they 
say the fire seemed to come forth of peeces of timber, which 
kindled more by the water that was cast vpon it. There 
was a Comet scene in the day time, running from the west 
to the east, casting an infinite number of sparkles, and they 
say the forme was like to a long taile, having three heads. 

The great lake betwixt Mexico and Tezcuco, without any 
wind, earthquake, or any other apparent signe, beganne 
sodainely to swell, and the waves grewe in such sort, as all 
the buildings neare vnto it fell downe to the ground. They 
say at that time they heard many voices, as of a woman in 
paine, which sayde sometimes, '^ my children, the time of 
your destruction is come", and otherwhiles it sayde, ^^ my 
children, whither shall I carry you, that you perish not 
utterly ?^^ There appeared, likewise, many monsters with 
two heads, which, being carried before the king, sodainely 
vanished. There were two that exceeded all other monsters, 
being very strange ; the one was, the fishers of the lake 
tooke a bird as bigge as a crane, and of the same colour, 
but of a strange and vnseene form.- They caried it to 
Montezuma, who at that time was in the pallace of tears and 
mourning, which was all hanged with blacke, for as he had 
many palaces for his recreation, so had he also others for 


times of affliction^ wherewith hee was then heavily charged ^ib. vn. 
and tormented, by reason of the threatnings his gods had 
given him by these sorrowfull advertisements. The fishers 
came about noone^ setting this bird before him, which had 
on the toppe of his head a thing bright and transparent^ in 
forme of a looking glasse, wherein he did behold a warre- 
like nation comming from the east^ armed_, fighting, and 
killing. He called his Divines and Astronomers (whereof 
there was a great number), who, having seen these things, 
and not able to yeelde any reason of what was demaunded 
of them, the bird vanished away, so as it was never more 
scene : wherevpon Montezuma remained very heavy and 
sorrowfull. The other which happened was a labourer, who 
had the report of a very honest man, came vnto him, telling 
him, that being the day before at his worke, a great Eagle 
flew towardes him, and tooke him vppe in his talents, 
without hurting him, carying him into a certaine cave, 
where it left him ; the Eagle pronouncing these words, 
" Most mightie Lorde, I have brought him whome thou 
hast commaunded me". This Indian labourer looked about 
on every side, to whome hee spake, but hee sawe no man. 
Then he heard a voyce which sayde vnto him, '^ Doost thou 
not knowe this man, whome thou seest lying vpon the 
ground^^j and looking thereon, he perceived a man lie very 
heavy asleepe, with royall ensignes, floures in his hand, and 
a staffe of perfumes burning, as they are accustomed to vse 
in that countrey, whome the labourer beholding, knew it 
was the great king Montecuma, and answered presently : 
'' Great Lorde, this resembles our King MonteQuma/' The 
voyce saide againe, ^* Thou saiest true, behold what he is, 
and how he lies asleepe, carelesse of the great miseries and 
afflictions prepared for him. It is nowe time that he pay 
the great number of offences hee hath doone to God, and 
that he receive the punishment of his tyrannies and great 
pride, and yet thou seest how carelesse hee lies, blinde in 


Lib. VII. 

his owne miseries, and without any feeling. But to the end 
thou maiest the better see him, take the staffe of perfumes 
hee holdes burning in his hand, and put it to his face, thou 
shalt then find him without feeling/' The poore laborer 
durst not approach neere him, nor doe as he was com- 
maunded, for the great feare they all hadde of this king. 
But the voyce saide, '^ Have no feare, for I am without 
comparison greater than this King, I can destroy him, and 
defend him, doe therefore what I commaund thee." Where- 
vpon the laborer took the staffe of perfumes out of the 
king's hand, and put it burning to his nose, but he mooved 
not, nor showed any feeling. 

This done, the voice said vnto him, that seeing he had 
found the king so sleepy, he should go awake him, and tell 
him what he had seene. Then the Eagle, by the same 
commandment, tooke the man in his talents, and set him 
in the same place where he found him, and for accomplish- 
ment of that which it had spoken, hee came to advertise 
him. They say, that Montezuma looking on his face, found 
that he was burnt, the which he had not felt till then, 
wherewith he continued exceedingly heavy and troubled. 
It may be, that what the laborer reported, had happened 
vnto him by imaginary vision. And it is not incredible, 
that God appointed by the meanes of a good Angell, or 
suffered by a bad, that this advertisement should be given 
to the labourer for the king's chasticement, although an 
infidell, seeing that we read in the Holy Scriptures, that 
infidells and sinners have had the like apparitions and 
revelations, as Nabucadonosor, Balaam, and the Pithoness 
Dan. ii. of Saul. And if some of these apparitions did not so ex- 
Num. xxu. presly happen, yet, without doubt, MonteQuma had many 
xxvifi. great afflictions and discontentments, by reason of sundry 
and divers revelations which he had, that his kingdome 
and law should soon end. 


Chap. xxiv. — Of the newes Montec^uma received of the 

Spaniards arrival in his Country, and of the 

Amhassage he sent them. 

In the fourteenth yeare of the raigne of Montecuma, Lib.vh. 

which was in the yeare of our Lord 151 7^ there appeared 

in the North seas, shippes, and men landing, whereat the 

subiects of MonteQuma wondred muchj and desirous to 

learne, and to be better satisfied what they were, they 

went aboord in their canoes, carrying many refreshings 

of meats and stuffes to make apparrell, vpon colour to sell 

them. The Spaniards received them into their shippes, 

and in exchange of their victualls and staffes, which were 

acceptable vnto them, they gave them chaines of false 

stones, red, blew, greene, and yellow, which the Indians 

imagined to be precious stones. The Spaniards informing 

themselves who was their king, and of his great power, 

dismissed them, willing them to carry those stones vnto 

their lord, saying, that for that time they could not goe to 

him, but they would presently returne and visit him. Those 

of the coast went presently to Mexico with this message, 

carrying the representation of what they had scene painted 

on a cloth, both of the shippes, men, and stones which they 

had given them. King Montezuma remained very pensive 

with this message, commanding them not to reveale it to 

any one. The day following, he assembled his counsell, 

and having showed them the painted clothes and the 

chaines, he consulted what was to be done ; where it was 

resolved to set good watches vpon all the sea coastes, to 

give present advertisement to the king of what they should 

discover. The yeare following, which was in the beginning 

of the yeare 1518, they discovered a fleet at sea, in the 

which was the Marques del Yalle Don Fernando Cortes, with 

his companions, a newes which much troubled Monte- 

L L 

Lin. VII. 


^ama^ and conferring with his counsel!, they all said, that 
without doubt, their great and antient Lord Quetzalcoatl 
was come, who had saide, that he would returne from the 
East, whither he was gone. The Indians held opinion, 
that a great Prince had in times past left them, and pro- 
mised to returne. Of the beginning and ground of which 
opinion shall be spoken in another place. They therefore 
sent five principall Ambassadors with rich presents, to con- 
gratulate his comming, saying, they knewe well that their 
great Lord Quetzalcoatl was come, and that his servant 
Montecuma sent to visit him, for so hee accounted himselfe. 
The Spaniards vnderstood this message by the meanes of 
Marina, an Indian woman whom they brought with them, 
and vnderstood the Mexicane tongue. Fernando Cortes 
finding this a good occasion for his entry, commanded to 
deck his chamber richly, and being set in great state and 
pompe, he caused the Ambassadors to enter, who omitted 
no showes of humilitie, but to worshippe him as their god. 

They delivered their charge, saying, that his servant 
MonteQuma sent to visit him, and that he held the country 
in his name as his lievetenant; that he knew well it was 
the Topilcin which had beene promised them many yeares 
since, who should returne again vnto them. And therefore 
they brought him such garments as he was wont to weare, 
when hee did converce amongst them, beseeching him to 
accept willingly of them, offering him many presents of 
great value. Cortes receiving the presents, answered that 
he was the same they spake of, wherewith they were greatly 
satisfied, seeing themselves to be curteously received and 
intreated by him (for in that, as wel as in other things, this 
valiant captaine deserved commendations) ; that if this 
course had been continued, to win them by love, it seemed 
the best occasion was off"ered that might be devised, to 
draw this country to the Gospel by peace and love : but 
the sinnes of these cruel homicides and slaves of Satan 


required punishment from heaven, as also those of many ^^°- 

Spaniards, which were not in small number. Thus the 
high iudgements of God disposed of the health of this 
nation, having first cut off the perished rootes : and as the 
Apostle saieth, the wickednes and blindenes of some, hath Rom. xi. 
beene the salvation of others. To conclude, the day after 
this Ambassage, all the Captaines and Commanders of the 
fleete came vnto the Admirall, where vnderstanding the 
matter, and that this realme of Montezuma was mightie and 
rich : it seemed fit to gaine the reputation of brave and 
valiant men among this people, and that by this meanes 
(although they were few), they should bee feared and re- 
ceived into Mexico. To this end they discharged all their 
artillerie from their shippes, which being a thing the 
Indians had never heard, they were amazed, as if heaven 
had fallen vpon them. Then the Spaniards beganne to 
defie them to fight with them : but the Indians not daring 
to hazard themselves, they did beate them and intreate 
them ill, showing their swordes, lances, partisans, and 
other armes, wherewith they did terrifie them much. The 
poore Indians were by reason heereof so fearefull and 
amazed, as they changed their opinion, saying, that their 
Lord Topilcin came not in this troup. But they were some 
gods (their enemies), come to destroy them. Whenas the 
Ambassadors returned to Mexico, MonteQuma was in the 
house of audience ; but before he would heare them, this 
miserable man commanded a great number of men to be 
sacrificed in his presence, and with their blood to sprinkle 
the Ambassadors, supposing by this ceremony (which they 
were accustomed to do in solemne Ambassages), to receive 
a good answer. But vnderstanding the report and inform- 
ation of the maner of their shippes, men, and armes, he 
stoode perplexed and confounded : then taking counsell 
thereon, he found no better meanes then to labour to 
stoppe the entrie of these strangers by coniurations and 

L L 2 


LiB.vir. ixiRgicke Artes. They had accustomed often to vse this 
meanes_, having great conference with the divell, by whose 
helpe they sometimes obtained strange effects. They there- 
fore assembled together all the Sorcerers, Magicians, and 
Inchanters, who being perswaded by Monteguma, they 
tooke it in charge to force this people to returne vnto their 
country. For this consideratioUj they went to a certaine 
place which they thought fit for the invocation of their 
divells, and practising their artes (a thing worthy of con- 
sideration), they wrought all they could; but seeing no- 
thing could prevaile against the Christians, they went to 
the king, telling him that they were more than men, for 
that nothing might hurt them, notwithstanding all their 
coniurations and inchantments. Then Monte(^uma advised 
him of another pollicie, that faining to be very well con- 
tented with their comraing, he commanded all his countries 
to serve these celestiall gods that were come into his land. 
The whole people was in great heavinesse and amazement, 
and often newes came that the Spaniards inquired for the 
King, of his manner of life, of his house and meanes. He 
was exceedingly vexed herewith ; some of the people and 
other Necromancers advised him to hide himselfe, offering 
to place him whereas no creature should ever finde him. 
This seemed base vnto him, and therefore he resolved to 
attend them, although it were dying. In the end he left 
his houses and royall pallaces to lodge in others, leaving 
them for these gods as he said. 

Chap. xxv. — Of the Spaniards entrie into Mexico. 

I pretende not to intreate of the acts and deedes of the 
Spaniards who conquered New Spaine, nor the strange ad- 
ventures which happened vnto them, nor of the courage 
and invincible valour of their Captaine Don Fernando 


Cortes : for that there are many histories and relations ^^^• 
thereof, as those which Fernando Cortes himselfe did write 
to the Emperour Charles the fift, ahhough they be in a 
plaine stile and farre from arrogancie_, the which doe give a 
sufficient testimony of what did passe, wherein he was 
worthy of eternall memory, but onely to accomplish my inten- 
tion. I am to relate what the Indians report of this action, 
the which hath not to this day beene written in our vulgar 
tong. Montecuma therefore^ having notice of this Captaines 
victories, that he advanced for his conquest^ that hee was 
confederate and ioyned with them of Tlascala^ his capital! 
enemies, and that he had severely punished them of Cholula 
his friends, he studied how to deceive him, or else to try 
him in sending a principall man vnto him, attyred with the 
like ornaments and royall ensignes, the which shuld take 
vpon him to be Montecuma, which fiction being discouered 
to the Marquis by them of Tlascala (wbo did accompany 
him), he sent him backe, after a milde and gentle reprehen- 
sion^ in seeking so to deceive him : wherevpon Montezuma 
was so confounded, that for the feare thereof_, he returned 
to his first imaginations and practises, to force the chris- 
tians to retyre, by the invocation of coniurers and witches. 
And therefore he assembled a greater number then before, 
threatning them that if they returned without effecting 
w^hat he had given them in charge, not any one should 
escape^ wherevnto they all promised to obey. And for this 
cause all the divells officers went to the way of Chalco, by 
the which the Spaniards should passe, when, mounting to 
the top of a hill, Tezcatlipuca, one of their principall gods_, 
appeared vnto them, as comming from the Spaniards camp^ 
in the habite of Chalcas, who had his breast bound about 
eight folde with a corde of reeds^ hee came like a man 
beside himselfe, out of his wits, and drunke with rage and 
furie. Being come to this troupe of witches and coniurers, 
he staied, and spake to them in great choller_, ^^Why come 

Lib. VII. 


you hither : what doth Montegama pretend to doe by your 
meanes ? He hath advised himselfe too late : for it is now 
determined that his Kingdom and honour shall be taken 
from him, with all that he possesseth^ for punishment of the 
great tyrannies he hath committed against his subjects, 
having governed not like a Lord, but like a traitour and 
tyrant/' The inchanters and coniurers, hearing these words, 
knew it was their idoll, and, humbling themselves before 
him, they presently built him an altar of stone in the same 
place, covering it with flowers which they gathered there- 
aboutes, but he contrariwise, making no account of these 
things, beganne againe to chide them, saying, ^' What come 
you hither to do, yee traitours ? Returne presently and 
behold Mexico, that you may vnderstand what shall become 
thereof '\ And they say that, turning towards Mexico to 
behold it, they did see it flaming on fire. Then the divell 
vanished away, and they, not dariug to passe any farther, 
gave notice thereof to Montezuma, whereat he remained long 
without speaking, looking heavily on the ground ; then he 
said. What shall we doe if god and our friends leave vs, and 
contrariwise, they helpe and favour our enemies ? I am 
now resolute, and we ought all to resolve in this point, 
that happen what may, we must not flie nor hide ourselves, 
or shew any signe of cowardice. I onely pittie the aged 
and infants, who have neither feete nor hands to defend 
themselves. Having spoken this, he held his peace, being 
transported into an extasie. In the end the Marquis ap- 
proaching to Mexico, Montezuma resolved to make of neces- 
sitie a vertue, going three or foure leagues out of the cittie 
toreceivehimwith a great maiesty, carried vpon the shoulders 
of foure Noblemen, vnder a rich canopie of gold and 
feathers: when they mette, Montecuma discended, and they 
saluted one another very curteously. Don Fernando Cortes 
said vnto him that he should not care for any thing, and 
that he came not to take away his real me, nor to diminish 


his authoritie. Montecuma lodged Cortes and his com- ^^^• 
panions in his royall pallace, the which was very stately, 
and he himselfe lodged in other private houses. This night 
the souldiers for ioy discharged their artillery, wherewith 
the Indians were much troubled, being vnaccustomed to 
heare such musicke. The day following Cortes caused 
MonteQuma and all the Nobles of his Court to assemble 
in a great hall, where, being set in a high chaire, he 
said vnto them that hee was servant to a great prince, 
who had sent them into these countries to doe good 
workes, and that having found them of Tlascala to be his 
friendes (who complained of wrongs and greevances done 
vnto them daily by them of Mexico), he would vnderstand 
which of them was in the blame, and reconcile them, that 
heereafter they might no more afflict and warre one against 
another : and in the meane time he and his bretheren 
(which were the Spaniards) would remaine still there with- 
out hurting them : but contrariwise, they would helpe them 
all they could. He laboured to make them all vnderstand 
this discourse, vsing his interpreters and truchmen. The 
which being vnderstoode by the King and the other Mexi- 
cane Lords, they were wonderfully well satisfied, and shewed 
great signes of love to Cortes and his company. Many 
hold opinion that if they had continued the course they 
began that day, they might easily have disposed of the king 
and his kingdome, and given them the law of Christ with- 
out any great effusion of bloud. But the iudgements of 
God are great, and the sins of both parties were infinite : 
so as not having followed this course, the busines was de- 
ferred : yet in the end God shewed mercy to this nation, 
imparting vnto them the hght of his holy Gospel, after he 
had shewed his iudgement, and punished them that had 
deserved it, and odiously offended his divine reverence. 
So it is that by some occasions many complaints, griefs, 
and iealosies grew on either side. The which Cortes find- 


Lib. VII. jj^g^ £^j2(j i\^Q^^ f\^Q Indians mindes began to be distracted 
from them^ lie thought it necessary to assure himself, in 
laying hand vpon king Montezuma, who was seazed on, and 
his legs fettered. Truly this act was strange vnto all men, 
and like vnto that other of his, to have burnt his ships, and 
shut himselfe in the midst of his enemies, there to vanquish 
or to die. The mischiefe was, that by reason of the vnex- 
pected arrival of Pamphilo de Narvaez at Vera Cruz, 
drawing the country into mutiny, Cortes was forced to 
absent himselfe from Mexico, and to leave poor Montezuma 
in the handes of his companions, who wanted discretion, 
nor had not moderation like vnto him ; so as they grew to 
that discention, as there was no meanes to pacific it. 

Chap. xxvi. — Of the death of Montezuma, and the Spaniards 
departure out of Mexico. 

Whenas Cortes was absent from Mexico, he that re- 
mained his lievetenant resolved to punish the Mexicans 
severely, causing a great number of the nobilitie to be 
slaine at a maske which they made in the pallace, the which 
did so far exceede, as all the people mutinied^ and in a 
furious rage took armes to be revenged and to kil the 
Spaniards. They therefore besieged them in the pallace, 
pressing them so neere, that all the hurt the Spaniards 
could do them with their artillery and crosse-bowes, might 
not terrific them, nor force them to retyre from their enter- 
prise, where they continued many dales, stopping their 
victualls, nor suffering any one to enter or issue forth. 
They did fight with stones, and cast dartes after their 
manor, with a kind of lances like vnto arrow es, in the 
which there are foure or six very sharpe rasors, the which 
are such (as the histories report) that in these warres an 
Indian with one blow of these rasors almost cut off the 


necke of a horse ; and as they did one day fight y/ith this 
resolution and furie_, the Spaniards, to make them cease, 
shewed forth Montezuma, with another of the chiefe Lords 
of Mexico, vpon the top of a platform of the house, covered 
with the targets of two souldiers that were with them. The 
Mexicanes, seeing their Lord Montezuma, staied with great 
silence. Then Montecuma caused the Lord to advise them 
to pacific themselves, and not to warre against the Span- 
iards, seeing that (hee being a prisoner) it could little pro- 
fite him. The which being vnderstood by a yong man 
called Quicuxtemoc, whom they now resolved to make their 
king, spake with a loud voice to Montecuma, willing him to 
retyre like a villain e, that seeing he had bin such a coward 
as to suffer himselfe to be taken, they were no more bound 
to obey him, but rather should punish him as he deserued, 
calling him woman for the more reproach, and then hee 
beganne to draw his bowe and to shoote at him, and the 
people beganne to cast stones at him, and to continue their 
combate. Many say that Monteguma was then hurt with a 
stone, whereof he died. The Indians of Mexico affirme the 
contrarie, and that he died as I will shew hereafter. Alva- 
rado and the rest of the Spaniards, seeing themselves thus 
pressed, gave intelligence to Captaine Cortes of the great 
danger they were in : who having with an admirable dexte- 
ritie and valour given order to Narvaez affaires, and 
assembled the greatest part of his men, he returned with 
all speede to succour them of Mexico, where observing the 
time the Indians rest (for it was their custom in war to rest 
every fourth day:) He one day advanced with great policy 
and courage, so as both he and his men entred the pallace, 
whereas the Spaniards had fortified themselves : they then 
shewed great signes of ioy in discharging their artillery. 
But as the Mexicans farie increased (being out of hope to 
defend themselves) Cortes resolved to passe away secretly 
in the night without bruite. Having therefore made 

Lib. VII. 

Lib. VII. 


bridges to passe two great and dangerous passages^ about 
midnight they issued forth as secretly as they could, the 
greatest part of his people having passed the first bridge, 
they were discovered by an Indian woman before they 
could passe the second, who cried out their enemies fled, 
at the which voice all the people ran together with a hor- 
rible furie : so as in passing the second bridge, they were 
so charged and pursued, as there remained above three 
hundred men slaine and hurt in one place ; where at this 
day there is a smal hermitage, which they vnproperly cal 
of Martyrs. Many Spaniards (to preserve the gold and 
iewells which they had gotten), perished, and others staying 
to carry it away, were taken by the Mexicans, and cruelly 
sacrificed to their idols. The Mexicans found king Monte- 
zuma dead, and wounded as they say with poiniards, and 
they hold opinion that that night the Spaniards slew him 
with other Noblemen. The Marquis in his relation sent 
to the Emperour, writes the contrary, and that the Mexicans 
killed him that night with a son of MonteQuma, which he led 
with him amongst other noblemen, saying, that all the 
treasure of gold, stones, and silver fell into the lake and 
was never more scene. But howsoever, Montezuma died 
miserably, and paied his deserts to the iust iudgement of 
our Lord of heaven for his pride and tyranny : his body 
falling into the Indians power, they would make him no 
obsequies of a king, no, not of an ordinarie person, but 
cast it away in great disdaine and rage. A servant of his 
having pittie of this king^s miserie (who before had bene 
feared and worshipped as a God) made a fier thereof, and 
put the ashes in a contemptible place. Eeturning to the 
Spaniards that escaped, they were greatly tyred and tur- 
moiled, the Indians following them two or three daies very 
resolutely, giving them no time of rest, being so distressed 
for victualls, as a few graines of Mays were divided amongst 
them for their meate. The relations both of the Spaniards 


and Indians agree, that Grod delivered them here miracu- 
lously, the Virgin Mary defending them on a little hill, 
whereat this day, three leagues from Mexico, there is a 
Church built in remembrance thereof, called our Lady of 
succour. They retyred to their antient friends of Tlascala, 
whence, by their aide and the valour and poUicie of Cortes, 
they returned afterwards to make war against Mexico, by 
water and land, with an invention of brigantines, which 
they put into the lake, where, after many combates, and 
above threescore dangerous battailes, they conquered 
Mexico, on S. Hippolitus day, the 13 of August 1521. 
The last king of the Mexicans (having obstinately main- 
tained the wars) was in the end taken in a great canoe, 
whereinto he fled, who, being brought, with some other of 
the chiefest noblemen, before Fernando Cortes, this pettie 
king, with a strange resolution and courage, drawing his 
dagger, came neere to Cortes, and said vnto him, ^^ Yntill 
this day I have done my best indevour for the defence of 
my people : now am I no farther bound, but to give thee 
this dagger to kill me therewith/^ Cortes answered, that 
he would not kill him, neither was it his intention to hurt 
them : but their obstinate folly was guiltie of all the misery 
and afflictions they had suffered, neither were they ignorant 
how often he had required peace and amity at their hands. 
He then commanded them to be intreated curteously. 
Many strange and admirable things chanced in this con- 
quest of Mexico : for I neither hold it for an vntruth, nor 
an addition, which many write, that God favoured the 
Spaniards by many miracles : for else it had bin impossible 
to surmount so many difficulties without the favour of 
heaven, and to subiect this nation with so few men. For 
although we were sinners, and vnworthy so great a favour, 
yet the cause of our God, the glorie of our faith, the good 
of so many thousand soules, as were in these countries, 
whome the Lord had predestinate, wrought this change 

Lib. VII. 

Lib. VII. 


wliich wee now see by supernatural! meanes, and proper to 
himselfe whicli calls the blinde and prisoners to the know- 
ledge of himselfe, giving them light and libertie by his holy 
Gospel. And to the end you may the better vnderstand this, 
and give credite therevnto, I will aledge some examples 
which_, in my opinion,, are fit for this history. 

Chap, xxvii. — Of some miracles which God hath showed at 

the Indies, in favour of the faith ^ heijond the desert 

of those that lurought them. 

Santa Cruz de la Sierra is a very great province, in the 
Kingdom e of Peru, neighbour to diverse infidell nations, 
which have not yet any knowledge of the Gospel, if since 
my departure the fathers of our company which remaine 
there have not instructed them. Yet this province of 
Santa Cruz is peopled by Christians, and there are many 
Spaniards, and great numbers of Indians baptized. The 
maner how Christianitie entred was thus. A souldier of a 
lewd life, resident in the province of Charcas, fearing 
punishment, being pursued for his offences, went farre vp 
into the countrie, and was received curteously by this bar- 
barous people. The Spaniard seeing them in a great 
extremity for water, and that to procure raine they vsed 
many superstitious ceremonies, according to their vsuall 
maner, he said vnto them, that if they would do as he said, 
they should presently have raine, the which they willingly 
offered to performe. Then the souldier made a great 
crosse, the which he planted on a high and eminent place, 
commanding them to worship it and to demand water, the 
which they did. A wonderful thing to see, there presently 
fel such abundance of raine, as the Indians tooke so great 
devotion to the holy crosse, as they fled vnto it in all their 
necessities, and obtained all they demanded : so as they 


brake downe tlieir idolls, and beganne to carry the crosse ^^^' '^"• 
for tlieir badge^ demanding preachers to instruct and to 
baptise them. For this reason, the province to this day 
hath beene called Santa Cruz de la Sierra. But to the end 
we may see by whom God wrought these miracles,, it shall 
not be vnfit to show how that this souldier, after he had 
some yeares done these miracles^ like an Apostle, and yet 
nothing reformed in his lewd course of life, left the pro- 
vince of Charcas, and continuing in his wicked courses^ 
was publikely hanged at Potosi. Polo (who knew him wel) 
writes all this, as a notable thing happened in his time. 
Cabe^a de Yaca, who since was governour of Paraguay, 
writes what happened vnto him in his strange perigrination 
in Florida, with two or three other companions, the onely 
remainder of an army, where they continued ten yeares 
with these Barbarians, traveling and searching even vnto 
the South sea, being an author worthy of credite : he 
saieth, that these Barbarians did force them to cure cer- 
taine diseases, threatning them with death if they did it 
not; they being ignorant in any part of phisicke, and 
having nothing to apply, forced by necessitie, made evan- 
gelicall medicines, saying the praiers of the Church, and 
making the signe of the crosse, by meanes whereof they 
cured these diseases, which made them so famous, as they 
were forced to exercise this office in all townes as they 
passed, the which were innumerable, wherein our Lord 
did aide them miraculously, and they themselves were 
thereat amazed, being but of an ordinarie life ; yea, one of 
them was a Negro. Lancero was a souldier of Peru, of 
whom they knew no other merit but to be a souldier : he 
spake certaine good wordes vpon wounds, and making 
the signe of the crosse, did presently cure them : so as they 
did say (as in a proverbe), the psalme of Lancero. Being 
examined by such as held authority in the Church, his 
office and works were approved. Some men worthy of 
credite report (and I have heard it spoken), that in the 

Lib. VII. 


cittie of Cusco, whenas the Spaniards were besieged and so 
straightly pressed, that without helpe from heaven it was 
impossible to escape, the Indians casting fire on the tops of 
the houses, whither the Spaniards were retyred (in which 
place the great Church is now built)/ and although the 
covering were of a kind of straw, which they call Chicho,^ 
and that the fire they cast was of very resinous faggots ; 
yet nothing was set on fire, nor burnt, for that there 
was a woman did quench it presently, the which the 
Indians did visibly see, as they confessed afterwards being 
much amazed. It is most certaine, by the relations of 
many, and by the histories which are written, that in divers 
battailes which the Spaniards had, as well in New Spaine 
as in Peru, the Indians their enemies did see a horseman in 
the aire, mounted on a whit horse, with a sword in his 
hand, fighting for the Spaniards, whence comes the great 
reverence they beare at the Indies to the glorious Apostle 
Saint lames. Other whiles they did see in some battailes 
the image of our Ladie, from whom the Christians have 
received in those partes incomparable favours and bene- 
fites : if I should particularly relate all the workes of 
heaven as they happened, it would make a very long dis- 
course. It sufficeth to have said this, by reason of the 
favour which the Queene of glorie did to our men when 
they were pressed and pursued by the Mexicans, the which 
I have set downe, to the end we may know how our Lord 
hath had a care to favour the faith and Christian religion, 
defending those that maintained it, although happily by 
their workes they deserved not so great favours and bene- 
fites from heaven. And therefore we ought not to con- 
demne all these things of the first Conquerours of the 
Indies, as some religious and learned men have done, 
doubtlesse with a good zeale, but too much afi'ected. For 
although, for the most part, they were covetous men, cruell, 

1 The great hall of the palace of Ynca Huiiacocha, now the cathedral 
of Cuzco. ^ Ychu. {Stipa Yclui). 


and very ic^norant in the course that was to be observed 
with the Infidels_, who had never offended the Christians, 
yet can we not deny but on their part there was much 
malice against God and our men_, which forced them to vse 
rigor and chastisement. And, moreover, the Lord of all 
(although the faithfull were sinners), would favour their 
cause and partie, even for the good of the Infidells, who 
should bee converted vnto the holy Gospel by this meanes, 
for the waies of God are high, and his paths wonderful. 

Lib. VII. 

Chap, xxviii. — Of the maner how the Divine Providence 
disposed of the Indies, to give an entrie to Christian 


I will make an end of this historic of the Indies, showing 
the admirable meanes whereby God made a passage for the 
Gospel in those partes, the which we ought well to consider 
of, and acknowledge the providence and bountie of the 
Creator. Every one may vnderstand by the relation and 
discourse I have written in these bookes, as well at Peru 
as in New Spaine, whenas the Christians first set footing, 
that these Kingdomes and Monarchies were come to the 
height and period of their power. The Yncas of Peru, 
possessing from the Realme of Chile beyond Quito, which 
are a thousand leagues, being most aboundant in gold, 
siluer, and all kinds of riches : as also in Mexico, Monte- 
zuma commaunded from the North Ocean sea vnto the 
South, being feared and worshipped, not as a man, but 
rather as a god. Then was it, that the most high Lord 
had determined that that stone of Daniel, which dis- 
solved the Realmes and Kingdoms of the world, should 
also dissolve those of this new world. And as the lawe of 
Christ came whenas the Romane Monarchic was at her 
greatues : so did it happen at the West Indies, wherein we 
see the iust providence of our Lord. For being then in 



Lib. VII. 

lib. ii, 
cle Cone 

tlie world^ I meane in Europe, but one head and temporall 
Lord, as the holy Doctors do note, whereby the Gospel 
might more easily be imparted to so many people and 
nations. Even so hath it happened at the Indies, where 
having given the knowledge of Christ to the Monarchs of 
so many Kingdomes, it was a meanes that afterwards the 
knowledge of the gospell was imparted to all the people : 
yea, there is herein a speciall thinge to be observed, that as 
the Lordes of Cuzco and Mexico conquered new landes, so 
they brought in their owne language, for although there 
were (as at this day) great diuersitie of tongues, yet the 
courtlie speech of Cuzco did, and doth at this day, runne 
above a thousand leagues, and that of Mexico did not 
extend farre lesse, which hath not beene of small import- 
ance, but hath much profited in making* the preaching 
easie at such a time, when as the preachers had not the 
gift of many tongues, as in old tymes. He that vv^oulde 
knowe what a helpe it hath beene for the conversion of this 
people in these two greate Empyres, and the greate diffi- 
cultie they haue founde to reduce those Indians to Christ, 
which acknowledge no Soueraigne Lord, let him goe to 
Florida, Brasil, the Andes, ^ and many other places, where 
they have not prevailed so much by their preaching in fiftie 
yeares, as they have done in Peru and Newe Spaine in lesse 
than five. If they will impute the cause to the riches of 
the countrie, I will not altogether denie it. Yet were it 
impossible to have so great wealth, and to bee able to pre- 
serve it, if there had not beene a Monarchic. This is also 
a worke of God in this age, that we. Preachers of the 
gospell being so colde and without zeale. Merchants and 
Soldiers, with the heatof covetousness and desire of command, 
search and discouer newe people whither wee passe with our 
commodities. For as Saint Austin saith, the Prophesie of 
Esaias is fulfilled, in that the Church of Christ is extended, 

* Antis. Not the mountains, but the Peruvian province of Anti- 
suyu, the wild forests to the eastward of the Andes. 


not ouely to the right hand, but also to the left : which is 
(as he declareth) by humaine and earthly meanes, which 
they seeke more commonly than lesus Christ. It was also 
a great providence of our Lord, that whenas the first 
Spaniardes arrived there, they founde ayde from the Indians 
themselves, by reason of their partialities and greate 

This is well knowne in Peru, that the division betwixt 
the two brothers Atahualpa and Huascar, the great King 
Huayna Ccapac their father being newly dead, gave entry to 
the Marquis Don Francisco Pizarro, and to the Spaniards, 
for that either of them desired his alliance, being busied in 
warre one against the other. The like experience hath 
beene in New Spaine, that the aide of those of the pro- 
vince of Tlascala, by reason of their continuall hatred 
against the Mexicaines, gave the victory and siegniory of 
Mexico to the Marquis Fernando Cortes and his men, and 
without them it had beene impossible to have wonne it, 
yea, to have maintained themselves within the country. 

They are much deceived that so little esteeme the In- 
dians, and iudge that (by the advantage the Spaniards 
have over them in their persons, horses, and amies, both 
offensive and deiffensive), they might easily conquer any 
land or nation of the Indies. 

Chile standes yet, or, to say better, Arauco and Tucapel, 
which are two cities, where our Spaniards could not yet 
winne one foote of ground, although they have made warre 
there above five-and-twenty yeares, without sparing of any 
cost. For this barbarous nation, having once lost the 
apprehention of horse and shotte, and knowing that the 
Spaniards fall as well as other men, with the blow of a stone 
or of a dart, they hazard themselves desperately, entring 
the pikes vppon any enterprise. How many yeares have 
they levied men in New Spaine, to send against the Chi- 
chimecos, which are a small number of naked Indians, 

M M 

Lib. VII. 


Lib. VII. armed onely with bowes and arrowes : yet, to this day, they 
could not bee vanquished, but contrariwise_, from day to day 
they grow more desperate and resolute. But what shall 
wee say of the Chunchos^ of the Chirihuanos, of the Pilco- 
9oneSj and all the other people of the Andes ? Hath not 
all the flower of Peru beene there^ bringing with them so 
great provision of armes and men, as we have seene ? 
What did they ? With what victories returned they ? 
Surely they returned very happy in saving of their lives, 
having lost their baggage and almost all their horses. Let 
no man thinke (speaking of the Indians), that they are 
men of nothing ; but if they thinke so, let them go and 
make triall. Wee must then attribute the glory to whom 
it appertaines, that is, principally to God, and to his ad- 
mirable providence : for if Montecuma in Mexico, and the 
Ynca in Peru, had bin resolute to resist the Spaniards, 
and to stoppe their entrie, Cortes and Pizarro had prevailed 
little in their landing, although they were excellent Cap- 
taines. It hath also beene a great helpe to induce the 
Indians to receive the law of Christ, the subiection they 
were in to their Kings and Lords, and also the servitude 
and slaverie they were helde in by the divell's tyrannies 
and insupportable yoke. This was an excellent disposition 
of the Divine AVisedome, the which drawes profite from ill 
to a good end, and receives his good from another^s ill, 
which it hath not sowen. It is most certaine that no people 
of the West Indies have been more apt to receive the 
Gospel then those which were most subiect to their Lords, 
and which have beene charged with the heaviest burthens, 
as well of tributes and services, as of customes and bloodie 
practises. All that which the Mexicane Kings, and those 
of Peru did possesse, is at this day most planted with 
Christian religion, and where there is least difficultie in the 
government and ecclesiasticall discipline. The Indians 
were so wearied with the heavy and insupportable yoke of 


Sathan^s lawes^ his sacrifices and ceremonies,, whereof wee ^"- "^"• 
have formerly spoken, that they consulted among them- 
selves to seeke out a new law, and another God to serve. 
And therefore the law of Christ seemed vnto them, and 
doth at this day seeme iust, sweete, clean, good, and full 
of happinesse. 

And that which is difficult in our law, to beleeve so 
high and soveraigne Misteries, hath beene easy among 
them, for that the Divell had made them comprehend 
things of greater difficultie, and the self-same things which 
he had stolen from our Evangelicall law, as their manor of 
communion and confession, their adoration of three in one, 
and such other like, the which, against the will of the 
enemy, have holpen for the easie receiving of the truth by 
those who before had imbraced lies. God is wise and ad- 
mirable in all his works, vanquishing the adversarie even 
with his owne weapon, hee takes him in his owne snare, 
and kills him with his owne sword. Finally, our God (who 
had created this people, and who seemed to have thus long 
forgot them), when the houre was come, hee would have 
the same divells, enemies to mankinde> whom they falsely 
held for gods, should give a testimony against their will, 
of the true law, the power of Christ, and the triumph of 
the crosse, as it plainely appeares by the presages, pro- 
phesies, signes, and prodiges, heere before mentioned, with 
many others happened in divers partes, and that the same 
Ministers of Sathan, Sorcerers, Magitians, and other In- 
dians have confessed it. And we cannot deny it (being 
most evident and knowne to all the world), that the Divell 
dareth not hisse, and that the practises, oracles, answers, 
and visible apparitions, which were so ordinary throughout 
all this infidelitie, have ceased, whereas the Cross of Christ 
hath beene planted, where there are Churches, and where 
the name of Christ hath beene confessed. And if there be 
at this day any cursed minister of his, that doth participate 

M M 2 


Lib. VII. thereof, it is in caves, and on the toppes of mountaines^ 
and in secret places, farre from the name and communion 
of Christians. The Soveraigne Lord be blessed for his 
great mercies, and for the glory of his holy name. And in 
truth, if they did governe this people, temporally and 
spiritually, in such sort as the law of lesus Christ hath set 
it downe, with a mild yoake and light burthen, and that 
they would impose no more vppon them then they can 
well beare, as the letters patents of the good Emperour 
of happy memorie doe command, and that they would 
employ halfe the care they have to make profite of these 
poore men's sweats and labours, for the health of their 
soules, it were the most peaceable and happy Christian 
part of all the world. But our sinnes are often an occasion 
that God doth not impart his graces so abundantly as he 
would. Yet I will say one thing, which I holde for truth, 
that although the first entry of the Gospel hath not beene 
accompanied (in many places), with such sinceritie and 
Christian meanes as they should have vsed; yet God, of 
his bounty, hath drawn good from this evill, and hath made 
the subiection of the Indians a perfect remedie for their 
salvation. Let vs consider a little what hath beene newly 
converted in our time to the Christian Religion as well 
in the East as in the West, and how little suretie and 
perseverance in the faith and Christian religion there hath 
beene, in places where the new converted have had full 
libertie to dispose of themselves, according to their free 
will. Christianitie, without doubt, augments and in- 
crease th, and brings forth daily more fruite among the 
Indian slaves : and contrariwise ruin is threatened in other 
partes where have beene more happy beginnings. And 
although the beginnings at the West Indies have beene 
laboursome, yet our Lord hath speedily sent good worke- 
men and his faithfull Ministers, holy men and Apostolical, 
as Friar Martin de Valencia, of the order of S. Francis, 


Friar Pomingo de BetanzoSj of the order of S. Dominicke, 
Friar Juan de Roa, of the order of S. Austin^ with other 
servants of our Lord^ which have lived holily, and have 
wrought more then humaine things. Likewise^ Prelates 
and holy Priests_, worthy of memory, of whom we heare 
famous miracles_, and the very acts of the Apostles : yea, 
in our time, we have knowne and conferred with some 
of this qualitie. 

But for that my intention hath beene onely to touch that 
which concernes the proper history of the Indians them- 
selves, and to come unto the time that the Father of our 
Lord lesus Christ saw fit to show the light of his word 
vnto them ; I will passe no farther, leaving the discourse 
of the Gospel at the West Indies for another time, and to 
a better vnderstanding : Beseeching the Soveraign Lord 
of all, and intreating his servants humbly to pray vnto his 
Divine Maiestie that it would please him of his bountie 
often to visit and to augment by the gifts of heaven this 
new Christendome, which these last ages have planted in 
the farthest bounds of the earth. Griory, Honour, and 
Empire be to the King of the ages for ever and ever. 

Lib. vir. 




I. — General Index . - . , 

II, — Descriptive List of Names of Places in Peru 
III. — QuiCHUA "Words .... 

IV. — Descriptive List of Yncas mentioned by Acosta - 
V. — Ynca Succession. The "Ayllus" or Lineages 
VI. — Mexican Names .... 

VII. — Descriptive List of Spaniards and other Europeans 






Agatarchides, book on the Erythrean 
Sea reported by Phocian in his 
Bibliotheca, on refining gold, 192 

Alligators, 148 

Alligator pear, 250 

Ambrose, St., 8, 9 

America. {See Indies.) 

Ancestors, worship of, 312 

Antarctic pole {see Pole), unknown 
lands, 170 

Antilles soil, products, 169 

Antipodes, views of Lactantius and 
St. Augustine on, 4, 19, 22, 23 

Architecture of the Yncas, 415 

Arctic zone, extent of land unknown, 171 

Aristotle, correct opinion of the shape 
of the heavens, 4, 9, 21 ; believed 
the torrid zone to be uninhabitable, 
25, 27, 29, 32, 75, 81, 96 ; ignorant 
of the compass, 48 ; on birds, 275 

Armadillos, 283 

Astrolabe, height of the sun by the, 15 

Atlantis, isle of, 64, 65, 90, 102 

Augustine, St., views as to the shape 
of the heavens, 3 ; doubt as to the 
South Pole, 4, 6, 9, 19 ; denied the 
Antipodes, 22, 23, 32, 45, 47, 187 ; 
on beasts found on islands, 58 ; on 
extension of Christianity, 528 

Australia, conjectured existence, 170 

Avicenna, 91 

Axi, 239, 240. {See Pepper.) 

Aymara dictionary, by Bertonio, v 

Bacalaos, 60 

Balsam, 257, 258 

Bamboos, 263 

Baptism, rite of Mexicans resembling, 

Barter, use of, 189 
Basil, St., 8 
Batatas, 235 
Bears, 274 
Bees and honey, 274 
Beer. {See Chicha, Maize.) 
Bezoar stones, 288, 292 
Birds in the Indies, 275, 279 
Bogos, 151 
Bonzes, 339 
Brazil wood, 260 
Bridges, 416, 417 

Cacao, 244 

Calendar, Mexican, 392 

Calibashes, 238 

Camels in Peru, 272 

Camotes, 235 

Canary Isles known to Pliny, 33 ; 

name, 34 
Canopus star, 14 
Capsicum, 239 
Carthage, voyages of ships of, 55. {See 

Cassava bread, 232, 233 
Cassia fistula, 260 
Cattle in the Indies, 271 
Cayman. {See Alligator.) 



China, learning, 401 ; writing, 408 

Chirimoya, 251 

Chocolate, 244, 245 

Chicha, 230, 231 

Chrysostom, St., notion of the shape of 
the earth and heavens, 1, 2 

Climate, in tropics, 76, 77 ; beyond 
tropics, 77 ; of Chile, 78 ; dry re- 
gions in tropics, 88 ; lofty regions 
the coldest, 96 ; cause of rainless 
belt on coast of Peru, 166, 167 

Cloth made from llama wool, 289 

Coca, 164, 189, 244, 245, 246 

Cocoa nuts, 253 

Cochineal, 248 

Comet in 1577, motion, 122 

Compass, ancients ignorant of, 48, 49 ; 
virtues of the load- stone, 50, 51 ; 
variation, 52 

Condors, 279 

Confession, used in Peru, 361, 362 

Conversion, divine arrangements for, 

Copal, 260 

Corn. {See Maize.) 

Cotton, 249 

Council of Lima, vii 

Dances, Peruvian and Mexican, 444 to 

Dantas or tapirs, 283 

Datura, sent to Spain by the Viceroy 
Toledo, 265 

Dead, the worship of, 311, 313 ; cus- 
toms in Peru, 314 ; in Mexico, 315 

Deluge, tradition of, 70 

Devil, the, his pride the cause of 
idolatry, 298 ; his malice, 300, 307 ; 
his cunning, 324 ; monks invented 
by, 334 ; penance invented by, 337 ; 
sacrifices to, 340 ; cruelty of un- 
endurable, 352 ; imitates the sacra- 
ments of the church, 354, 356 ; con- 
fession to, 360 ; unction, 364 ; illu- 
sions of, 371 ; invents a Trinity, 
373, 377 ; final defeat of, 381 

Dioscorides, 48 

Dogs in the Indies, 272 

Drugs, 260 

Dyes, 260 

Earth, shape, opinion of the ancients, 
1 ; part discovered, 18 ; circum- 
navigated, 4 ; round, 5 ; rests upon 
nothing, 10 ; distribution of land 
and sea, 17 ; worship of, 304 

Earthquakes, 178, 179, 180 

l<]clipses, proof of roundness of the 
earth from, 5 

]5weralds, 37, 224, 225 

Equinoctial, nature of, 73 ; crossed by 

the author, iii, 90 
Eudoxus, voyage of, 33 
Eusebius on prognostications, 506, 508 

Fathers of the Church (see Augustine, 

Chrysostom, Jerome, Gregory Nazi- 

anzen), they may err, 3 
Feathers, art of working in, 280 
Fig tree at Mala, 268 
Fishery. {See Pearl.) 
Fishing (see Whale), in balsas, 150 ; by 

Chirihuanas, 151 ; in Lake Titicaca, 

Floating gardens at Mexico, 469 
Flocks. {See Llamas.) 
Florida, strait of, 140 
Floripondio, flower, 255. (See Datura.) 
Flowers in the Indies, 255 
Frost-bite, a man lost his toes by, 133 
Fruits of the Indies, 236, 237 
Fruit trees, 265, 268, 249, 251, 252 

Gallinazos or turkey buzzards, 279 
Gardens, floating, at Mexico, 469 
Genoa, great emerald at, 225 
Ginger grown in the Indies, 239 
Giants, bones of, found at Mauta and 

Puerto Viejo, 56 ; in Mexico, 454 
Gold in the Indies, 190 to 193 
Granadilla, fruit of the passion flower, 

Gregory Nazianzen, 8, 23 
Guano on the coast of Peru, 281 
Guayavos, fruit, 250 
Guinea,New, opinions concerning, 18, 47 

Hanno, voyage of, 32 

Head-dresses, 422 

Heavens, shape of, notion of St, Chri- 
sostom, 1, 2 ; of Theodore t, 2 ; of 
Lactantius, 2 ; of St. Jerome, 2 ; 
of Procopius, 2, 8 ; of St. Augustine, 
2 ; true shape, 5, 7, 12 ; proof from 
eclipses, 5 

Hispaniola said to be Ophir, 37 

History, profit to be derived from, 388, 

Horses in the Indies, 271 

Human sacrifices, 320, 346 to 350 

Humming-birds, 279 

Idols (see Devil), in Mexico, 318, 319, 
369 ; in Peru, 371 ; the testimony 
of, 508 

Idolatry, forms of, 303 ; sin of, 306 

Imagination, uses of, 20 

Indian corn. {Sec Maize.) 

Indies (America or New World), by 
what means men might have first 



reached, 45, 46, 47 ; discovered by 
chance, 54, 56 ; possibly peopled by 
land, 57, 455 ; how beasts reached 
the New World, 58, 59, 62, 63 ; 
idea of Jewish descent of Indians 
refuted, 67, 68 ; report of the In- 
dians as to their origin, 70, 71 ; 
origin of native civilisation, 72 ; 
shape of the Indies, 182 ; how there 
can be animals peculiar to, 277. 
(See Mexico, Peru.) 

Irrigation, 159 

Isaiah, prophecy, 44, 528 

Isthmus of Panama, question of a 
canal, 135 

Japan, confession used in, 363, 369 

Jerome, St., view as to the shape of 
the heavens, 2, 8, 15, 32 ; on Tar- 
shish, 41 

Jesuits in Peru, iv ; their work, v. 
{See Acosta.) 

Josephus on the position of Ophir, 39 

Lactantius, view as to the shape of 
the Heavens, 2 ; held that there were 
no antipodes, 19, 32 ; on the testi- 
mony of idols, 508 

Lakes in the Andes, 152 ; in Mexico, 153 

Lima, synod of; rule as to Indian 
marriages, 426 ; council of, vii 

Liquidambar, 259 

Llamas, 289 ; as beasts of burden, 
290 ; diseases, 291 

Llanos, 237 

Macrobius, 24 

Magdalena, river, 158 

Maize, 228 ; harvest, 229 ; uses, 229, 
230 ; beer made from, 230, 231 

Malacca, 33 

Manatis, 146 

Marriages, in Mexico, 370 ; in Peru, 
369, 424, 425, 426 

Mela, Pomponius, 24 

Mendocino, cape ; nothing known be- 
yond, 18, 60, 171 

Menomotapa, climate of, 94 

Mercury. {See Quicksilver.) 

Messengers, Peruvian, 409, 423 

Metals, abundance in the New World, 
185; gold and silver, 186-9; min- 
eral wealth of Peru, 187 ; gold, 190 
to 194 ; silver, 194 ; mines of Po- 
tosi, 197 ; quicksilver, 211 

Mexico. {See under Mexican Section.) 

Milky way, 7, 14, 15 

Miracles, of rain at Santa Cruz de la 
Sierra, 524 ; worked by Spaniards, 
525 ; in defence of Spaniards, 526 ; 
at siege of Cuzco, 526, {See Omens.) 

Monks, 334, 335 ; in Mexico, 336 

Monkeys, 284, 285 

Months, Peruvian, 374, 375 

Moon, eclipses of, prove the earth is 

round, 5 ; worship of, 304 
Mulberries, 269 
Mummeries of the Yncas, 432 

Nature, study of, 184 

Navigation, Portuguese expert in the 

art of, 15 
Nepos, Cornelius. {See Pliny.) 
New World. {See Indies.) 
Nicaragua, 127 
Night, cause of darkness, 5 
Nile, sources unknown to the ancients, 

27 ; cause of inundation, 78 
Nobility, Mexican, 488 
North-west passage, 18, 141 

Obadiah, his prophecy, 43 

Olives, 269 

Omens, before the Spaniards arrived 

in Mexico, 506, 510 
Ophir, whether Peru is ? 37, 38 ; true 

position, 39 ; view of Josephus, 39 
Oranges, plant themselves, 265 
Ore Jones, nobles of Peru, 413 
Orosius, Paulus ; on omens, 507 

Panama, climate, 77 ; sea, 99 ; tide, 

Paraguay, inundations of, 78, 158 

Pearl, fisheries, 226, 227 

Peccaries, 282 

Penance, of Mexican priests, 338 ; of 
Peruvians, 339 

Peru, seasons in, 80 ; winds. 111, 112 
rivers, 158 ; coast valleys, 100, 161 
Sierra, 161 ; physical features, 164 
rainfall, 165; use of rainless coast 
166, 167 ; mineral wealth {see Me 
tals), 187 ; animals, 273, 282; birds 
275 ; vicunas, 287 ; llamas, 290 
maize, 226 ; roots, 232 ; pepper 
239 ; fruit, 251, 252 ; religion, 301 
302 ; deities, 304 ; idols, 308, 371 
superstitions, 309 ; worship of the 
dead and ancestors, 311, 312, 313 
temples, 325, 326 ; convents of vir 
gins, 331, 332; confession, 361, 362 
sacrifices, 340 to 344 ; sorcerers, 
362, 367 ; marriage, 369 ; dances 
and music, 445 

Pepinos, 237 

Pepper, 239, 240 

Phocion, {See Agatarchides.) 

Picture writing, 403 

Pilot fish, or Romeros, 147 

Pine apples, 236 



Pitch, springs of, 165 

Planets, motions of, 7 

Plantains, 241 

Plants, introduced from Spain, 265 

Plate, river, inundations of, 78, 158 

Plato, his opinion touching the New 
World, 36 ; on Atlantis, 64, 65, 90 

Pliny, held the opinion of Aristotle as 
to the tropics, 29, 32 ; ignorant of 
the compass, 49, 55 ; mentions cro- 
codiles, 148 ; on emeralds, 225 ; 
silver, 201 ; pearls, 227 ; birds, 275 ; 
millet, 231 ; plane, 241 ; on a story, 
in Cornelius Nepos, of Indians com- 
ing to the King of Sue via, 55 ; 
death of, at Mount Vesuvius, 177 ; 
on mines in Spain, 201 ; on quick- 
silver, 213 

Poles, arctic, 171 ; antarctic, 16, 28, 

Portuguese, expert in navigation, 15 

Potatoes, 233 

Prickly pear, 463 

Priests, in Mexico, 330 ; training of, 
in Mexico, 443 

Ptolemy, believed the tropics to be 
habitable, 91 

Puna of Peru ; intense cold, 132, 133 

Purgatives, 261 

Quicksilver, properties of, 211 ; dis- 
covery of in Peru, 214, 215 ; method 
of preserving workmen from poison 
of, 212 

Rainbow, worship of, 304 

Rainfall, in the tropics, 79 ; effects of 

sun on, 84 ; temi)ers heat, 91 ; rain 

bearing winds, 127 ; in Peru, 165 ; 

cause of no rain on the Peruvian 

coast, 166 
Rice, 234 
Rivers, Amazons, 156 ; Pongo, or 

rapid, 157 ; of Peru, 158 
Romero. {See Pilot fish. ) 
Roots, edible, {See Potatoe, 233; Oca, 

235 j Camote, 235 ; Yuca, 233, 235.) 

Sacraments of the Church, counter- 
feited by the Devil, 346, 354 

Sacrifices — human, in Mexico, 323 ; 
346 to 350; Peruvian, 340, 341, 
342, 343, 344 

Salomon Isles ; opinions as to position, 
18 ; discovery, 46, 47, 115 

Salt, fountain of, 155 

Saltpetre, cools water, 95 

Sarsaparilla, 156 

Schinus Molle, 264 

Schools, in the Mexican temples, 442 

Sea sickness, 129 

Seneca, thought to have alluded to 

the West Indies, 34, 35 
Sharks, voracity of, 147 
Sheep, in the Indies, 270 
Sickness, at sea, 129 

at great heights, 130, 131 

Silver, in the Indies, 194 ; Pliny on, 
201 ; refining, 217 ; engines for 
grinding ores, 222 ; trial of, 223 

Sloths, 284 

Snow blindness, 288 

Sorcerers, 362, 367, 498 

South sea, 56, 134 

Southern cross. {See Stars.) 

Springs, hot and cold, 154, 156; of 
pitch, 155 ; of salt, 155; at Guaya- 
quil, flowing by sarsaparilla, 156 ; 
rising on Vilcanota, 156 

Stars, their motions, 6 ; Southern 
Cross, 14 ; and Canopus, 64 ; milky 
way, 7, 14, 15; in southern hemi- 
sphere, 14 ; names in Peru, 305 

Storax, 260 

Strabo, on balsam, 258 

Sue via. King of. {See Pliny.) 

Sugarcane, 269 

Sumatra, 49, 55, 91 

Sun, effect on rainfall, 78, 85 ; on va- 
pours, ^Q ; worship of, 303, 304, 
305 ; argument against its being 
God, 310 

Synod of Lima ; rule as to marriages, 

Tapirs, 283 

Tarshish, 38, 40, 41, 42 

Tarugas, 288 

Temples, in the Indies, 325 

Theodoret ; opinion as to the shape of 
the Heavens, 2 ; on the position of 
Tarshish, 41 

Theophilus, 2 

Theophrastus, 48 ; emeralds men- 
tioned by, 225 

Thunder and lightning, worshij) of, 

Tides, 143, 144, 145 

Timber trees, 262 

Time, change of, in sailing round the 
world, 173 

Tobacco, 261 

Totora, 235, 417 

Trinity of the Peruvians, 373 

Tropics, held to be uninhabitable, 25 
climate of, 76, 77 ; rainfall, 79 
abound in water and pastures, 81 
dry regions of, 88, 89 ; moderate 
heat in, 90, 91, 94, 95 ; length of 



days and nights, 92 ; cold winds, 
98 ; pleasant life in, 101 
Tunal (prickly pear), 463 

Unction used in Mexico, 364 

Vermillion, 214, 216 

Victoria, ship which has encompassed 

the earth, 4 
Vineyards, 267, 268 ; in Peru, 168 
Virgins, convent of, in Peru, 232 ; in 

Mexico, 333 

Warfare, Mexican, 440 

Whale fishing, 149 

Winds, cause of temperate climate in 

the tropics, 98 ; land and sea 
breezes, 100, 126 ; their properties 
and causes, 105 ; in Peru, 111 ; 
trade winds, 113, 115; names of 
winds, 118, 119; cause of trade 
winds, 121 ; cause of westerly winds 
outside the tropics, 124 ; rain-bear- 
ing winds, 127 

Yguanas, 283 

Zarephath, supposed to be Spain, 43 
Zones. {See tropics), 25 ; southern, 
28 ; burning, 72 {see equinoctial) ; 
held to be uninhabitable, 74 ; burn- 
ing zone very moist, 75 {See Arctic, 



(g denotes places also mentioned by Garcilasso de la Vega.) 

Acoria, 216. Village, a native of which, 
named Nauincopa, discovered a 
quicksilver mine in Huancavelica. 
Acoria is now a district in the de- 
partment of Huancavelica, with a 
small village of 646 inhabitants. 

Amazons, great river of, 82. 

Andahuaylas, 165, 430. A town, capi- 
tal of the province of the same 
name, on the road from Ayacucho 
to Cuzco ; in 13° 36' 54" S. lat. It 
is situated in a long fertile valley, 
enjoying a temperate climate, and 
surrounded by mountains, g. 

Angoango, 180 (Ancu-ancu). A hamlet 
in the parish of Achacache, on the 
east side of lake Titicaca. 

Anti-suyu, 414. The eastern division 
of the Empire of the Yncas. g. 

Apurimac, 151. A great river which, 
with its tributaries, drains the moun- 
tainous country round Cuzco, and 
eventually falls into the Ucayali. g. 

Araucanos, 170, 410, 427, 530. The 
independent Indians in the south 
of Chile. G. 

Arena, 168. A mountain near Lima 

Arequipa, 151, 161, 166, 167, 173. 
Capital of the department of the 
same name, in 16° 24' 28" S. lat., 
in a fertile valley at the foot of the 
volcano of Misti. Arequipa was 
founded by order of Pizarro, in 
1540. G. 

Arica, 56, 218. A seaport of Peru. 

It has been several times destroyed 
by earthquakes, g. 

Atico, 167. On the coast, between 
Yea and Arequipa. Occasional rain 
there, g. 

Callao, 95. The port of Lima, in 
12° 4' 15" S. lat, 

Canaris, 428, 532. A powerful tribe 
in the kingdom of Quito, g. 

Canete, 150. A town on the coast, 
south of Lima, in a plain covered 
with sugar cane. It was founded by 
the Viceroy Marquis of Caiiete. g. 

Capachica, 290. The weavers of 
ccompi lived in this province, on 
the shores of lake Titicaca. The 
promontory of Capachica forms a 
bay in the north-west end of the 
lake, 15o 44' 28" S. lat. 

Caravaya, 39, 192. A province of the 
department of Puno, on the eastern 
side of the Andes. Its forests are 
watered by streams famous for 
their gold washings. G. 

Cavanas, 131. Corruption of Cahuana. 
Several places of this name. One 
near Huamachuco, another in An- 
cachs, another near Lucanas, an- 
other in the department of Puno. 

Caxamarca, 432, 434, 435. Corruption 
of ccasa, ice ; and marca, a town. 
In a large plain, at the foot of the 
eastern Andes, in 7° 9' 31" S. lat. 
Here the Yrica Atahualpa was ar- 
rested, and put to death by Pizarro. g. 



Chachapoyas, 168, 180. A province 
and town in the department of 
Amazonas, in 6° 7' 41" S. lat. g. 

Chancas, 431. A warlike tribe of the 
Ynca nation, round Guamanga, and 
extending as far as the Apurimac. G. 

Charcas, iv, 150, 155, 274, 525. A 
great province of the old Vice-royalty 
of Peru ; the modern Bolivia. G. 

Chichas, 417. A tribe in the southern 
part of Upper Peru (modern Bo- 
livia) . G. 

Chincha-suyu, 414. The northern di- 
vision of the Empire of the Yncas. G. 

Chirihuanos, iv, 72, 150, 530. A war- 
like tribe in the forests to the east 
of the Andes, in Uj)per Peru (mo- 
dern Bolivia), g. 

Chucuito, 161, 362; lake, 416. A 
town on the western shore of lake 
Titicaca. The lake itself was some- 
times called "of Chucuito". Lat. 
15o 54' 10" S., about 12,000 feet 
above the sea. g. 

Chumbivilicas, 198, 199, 417. The 
dancers of the Ynca court. Their 
province is near Cuzco, in the val- 
ley of the Apurimac. g. 

Chunchos, 427, 530. Wild Indians 
in the forests east of the Andes, g. 

Chuqui-apu (see La Paz). From 
chuqui, a lance in Quichua, or gold 
in Aymara ; and apu, chief. See 
G. de la Vega, i, p. 225. On this 
site the city of La Paz was founded. 


Colla-suyu, 361, 414. The southern 
division of the empire of th« Yncas. 


Collao,83, 95, 151, 155, 361, 416. The 
region comprised in the northern 
half of the basin of lake Titicaca. 

Collahuas, 131. In the province of 
Huaras, north of Lima, a pass over 
the Andes. Another of the same 
name near Arequipa. o. 

Coaillo, 368. A province where there 
were many witches. 

Cunti-suyu, 414. The western divi- 
sion of the empire of the Yncas. o. 

Cuzco, 155, and passim. The capital of 
the empire of the Yncas. g. 

Miracle at the siege of, 526. 

Hanan, 71, 429. (Upper), g. 

Urin, 71, 429, 436. (Lower), g. 

Desaguadero, 416. The river which 
drains lake Titicaca, flowing south- 
wards, g. 

Guamanga, 216 (correctly Hua- 
manca), now called Ayacucho. 

Founded by Pizarro, 9 Feb. 1539. 

Lat. 130 8' 45" S. g. 
Guayaquil, 156. The sea port of Quito. 

Huanca, 199. A tribe of the Ynca 

nation in the valley of Xauxa. G. 
Huancavelica, 154, 160, 215 (correctly 

Huanca-villca), in 12o 48' 38" S. lat. 

Capital of the department of the 

same name, in the Cordilleras, once 

famous for its quicksilver mines. 


Huarco, 150. The plain on the coast, 
now known by the name of CaSete. 


Huarochiri, 368. Folk-lore of, v. A 
province of the department of Lima, 
in the maritime Cordilleras : between 
11° 20' S., and 12° 35' S. It con- 
tains the sources of the coast rivers, 
Rimac, Lurin, and Mala. 

Juli, station of the Jesuits at, v. On 
the banks of lake Titicaca. 

La Paz, 180. A town to the south of 
lake Titicaca, now the commercial 
capital of Bolivia. Founded in 1548 
by Alonzo de Mendoza, by order of 
the President Gasca. Lat. 17° 30' 
S. The bishopric of La Paz dates 
from 1005 

Lima, 46, 111, 127, 426, 432. The 
capital of Peru. Founded by Pi- 
zarro, January 18, 1535, in 12° 2' 
34" S. Called also the City of the 

Lucauas, 131, 230, 417. Bearers of 
the Ynca's letter. A province in 
the department of Ayacucho, pro- 
perly Rucanas. G. 

Mala. A valley on the coast of Peru, 
south of Lima. Fig-tree in, 268 

Manchay, 368. The lomas, near 
Lurin, on the coast, are so called ; 
also an hacienda near Pachaca- 

Manta, 225. On the sea-coast of the 
kingdom of Quito, q. 

Marauon, 82, 83. The upper course 
of the great river Amazon. G. 

Nasca, 308. A town and valley on 
the coast, yielding vines and cotton, 
and irrigated by ancient channels. 
G. Correctly Nauasca. 

OUantay-tambo. {See Tambo.) Ynca 
ruins. G. de la Vega calls it simply 
Tampu. G. In the valley of the 
Vilcamayu, near Cuzco. 

Omasuyo, 151, 429. A province on 
the eastern shores of lake Titicaca. 
Correctly Uma-suyu. g. 



Paccari-tampu, 71. A place in the 
province of Paruro, near Cuzco, 
Several traditions point to this 
place as the cradle of the Ynca race. 
It is said that Manco Ccapac first 
appeared here. G. 

Paria lake, 151, 283. In the south of 
Bolivia. The river Desaguadero, 
draining the lake of Titicaca, empties 
its vs^aters into the salt lake of Paria 
or Aullagas. G. 

Pariacaca, 131. A pass over the mari- 
time Cordillera of the Andes, in the 
province of Huarochiri. 

Pasto, 427. The most northern pro- 
vince of the kingdom of Quito, but 
now in Colombia, o. 

Patallacta, 432. An estate in the 
province of Paucartambo, near 
Cuzco. There is another place of 
the same name in Tayacaja, a pro- 
vince of Huancavelica. 

Paullo, 429. An estate or farm, near 
Calca, in the valley of the Vilcamayu 
(department of Cuzco). 

Payta, 147. A seaport in the north 
of Peru, in 5° 6' S. 

Paytiti, 82, 156, 171. A fabulous king- 
dom in the forests east of the Andes. 

Pilco9ones, 427, 530 

Popayan, 95. A town north of Quito, 
in Colombia : in the province of 

Potosi, 90, 152, 196, 197,198, 199, 200, 
203, 218, 222, 525. A famous silver 
yielding district and town in Upper 
Peru (now Bolivia), in the province 
of Porco. Correctly Potocchi. G. 

Puerto Vie jo, 225. A seaport on the 
coast of the kingdom of Quito, g. 

Porco, 196, 199, 200, 201 A province 
in Upper Peru, in the centre of 
which is Potosi. 

Quito, 90, 175, 433. Capital of the 
kingdom of the same name, nearly 
on the equator ; the most northern 
part of the empire of the Yncas. g 

Rucana. {See Lucanas.) 

Runahuanac, 281. Corruptly Luna- 
huana ; in the province of Canete, 
south of Lima, The town is on the 
left bank of the river Caiiete. G. 

Salinas, 192 

San Bias parish, in Cuzco, 432 

Saruma, 192. Mines in the Govern- 
ment of Salinas. 

Soras, 131. A district in the province 
of Lucanas, department of Aya- 
cucho. G. 

Sta. Cruz de la Sierra, 170, 189, 524 

A town and province in the eastern 
part of Bolivia 

Tambo, 415. The great ruins of 
Ollontay-tambo in the valley of the 
Vilcamayu. g, 

Tiahuanaco, 71, 415. The great ruins 
near the south shore of lake Titi- 
caca. G. 

Titicaca, iv, 71, 83, 151, 165. The 
great lake. The boundary between 
Peru and Bolivia passes across it. 
It is 40 leagues long by 20 broad, 
between 15° 59' 57", and 16o 3' 40" 
S. lat. ; 12,545 feet above the level 
of the sea. g. 

Tanaca nunu, 232 

Tarapaya, 153, 218, 222. Near Potosi. 
An extensive and fertile plain 

Toto-cache, 432 (correctly Toco-cachi), 
a suburb of Cuzco, now the parish 
of San Bias. g. 

Truxillo, 167. City founded by Pi- 
zarro in 1535. The bishopric 
erected in, 1609. In 8° 6' 9" S. lat., 
near the shores of the Pacific. G. 

Ttahuantin-suyu, 414. " The Four 
Provinces". The general name for 
the empire of the Yncas. g. 

Tucapel in Chile, 410, 427, 530 

Tucuman, 274. A province south of 
Charcas, originally in the Vice- 
royalty of Peru, afterwards in that 
of Buenos Ayres. Q. 

Tumbez, 61. The most northern port 
in Peru, where Pizarro landed in 
1526. Q. 

Tumipampa, 432. A province in the 
south of the kingdom of Quito, g. 

Uros, 83. A tribe of Indians living 
among the reed beds in the south- 
west of the lake of Titicaca. g. 

Valdivia, 192. A town in the south 
of Chile. 

Vilcabamba, 435. There are several 
places in Peru called Vilcabamba. 
The district of Vilcabamba, to which 
the Yncas retired, is a mountainous 
tract north of Cuzco, bordering on 
the forests east of the Andes. 

Vilcaiiota, 156. A snowy peak on the 
eastern cordillera, in 14° 28' 30" S. 
lat. ; 17,000 feet above the sea. It 
means "the House of the Sun" in 
the Colla language. Vilca, the sun ; 
and nuta, a house. G. 

Xauxa, 165, 272, 416. A town in the 
fertile valley of the same name, in 
11° 49' 38" S. lat., between the 
maritime and eastern Cordilleras of 
the Andes ; properly Sausa. g. 



Yea, 56, 150. A province on the 
coast of Peru, yielding cotton and 
wine. The town is in 14° 4' 33" S. 

Yscaycingas, 427 

Yucay, 155, 165. A village, where 
there were Ynca palaces and Laths 
in the valley of the Vilcainayu (also 
called, in this part, the valley of 
Yucay), near Cuzco. o. 



Acca, 230. Fermented liquor or Cliica. 
See O. tie la V&ja, i, p. 298 

Aclla, 232. Chosen. Aclla-cnna, Vir- 
gins of the Sun, G. de la V&ja, i, 
292 ; ii, 250 

Alco, a dog (canis Ingsc), 272 

Alpaca, 277, 341 

Amaru, 435, A serpent. See G. de 
la Vega, ii, p. 352 

Anas, 59. A small fox. 

Apachita, 308, 309, Apachecta, the 
dative of the present participle of 
Apachinl, I carry. See G. de la 
Vega, i, 117. Machani, I worship. 
Apachecta muchani, " I offer up 
thanks by throwing a stone on a 
heap by the road side", on the sum- 
mit of a pass. Two words used by 
the Indians on reaching the top of a 

Apu, 373. Chief. 

Apu-panaca, 332. Officer in charge of 
a convent. See also Ramos, cap. 9, 
and Ondegardo, p. 165 

Arepas, 230 

Auasca, 434, 435. Coarse cloth. 

Atahualpa, 434, 435. For the deriva- 
tion see G. de la Vega, i, lib. ii, cap. 

Ayamarca, 376. Month of October. 

Ayllu, 429, 432. laneage. See G. de 
la Vega, i, 67 

Ay ma, 377. A song. See Molina, p. 

Aymuray, 373. April and May. Time 
of harvest. Ayrihuay, Molina, 33, 

Aucaycuzqui Ynti-raymi, 374. June 

Cachi, 432. Salt (in Toco-cachi). 

Cumac (from Camani, I create). In 
the word Pachacamac, which see. 

Camay, 373. December. 

Carachi, a disease in llamas, 291, 420. 
See G. de la Vega, ii, 378 

Catucliillay, 304. A star worshipped 
l)y .shei)herds, near the milky way. 

Catuilla, 304. A name for thunder. 

Cavi, 235. An edible root. 

Cayo, 375. Dancing. See Molina, p. 

89. A playing on drums and singing. 
Ccapac, rich. 420, 433 
Ccapac Kay mi, 354 {see Ray mi). 
Ccompi, 289, 340, 412, 417. Fine 

cloth. See G. de la Vega, ii, 324 
Ccoya, 411. Queen. 
Ccoya Kaymi, 355. Tenth month 
Chacana, a star, 305. Also Balboa, 68 
Chacra, 374. A farm. 
Chacu, 151, 273, 287. A hut. See 

also G. dela Vega, ii, 109, 115 
Chahua huarc[ui, the eighth month, 375 
Chaquira, Minute beads, CiezadeLeon, 

cap. xlvi. Also G. de la Vega, ii, 

Charqui, 289. Dried meat ; whence 

jerked meat. 
Chasqui, 409, 423. A messenger. 
Chicho, 526. Misprint for Ychu. 
Chinchilla, 283 
Chirimoya, 251 

Chunquinchincay, 305. A star. 
Chuhu. Frozen potato, 165, 233. G. 

de la Vega, ii, 17, 359 
Chuquilla. A name for thunder, 301, 

341,373. 6ViM</wi, alauce. Yllani, 

I shine. Yllapa, a thunder bolt. 
Churi, 373. Son. 
Coca, 164, 189. Account of, 244, 245, 

Cochuchu, 235. An edible root. 
Collca, 304. The Fleiades. See also 

G. de la Vega, ii, 237, and Balboa. 
Contesisca, 342, A sacrifice. 
Cuntur, 279. Condor. 
Curaca, 375. A chief 
Cusi, 434. Joy. 
Cutec, from cutlni, I overturn. See 

Cuy, 283, 340. A guinea pig. G. de 

la Vega, ii, 118, 233, 384 
Guaras, 373. See Huaras. 
llanan, 71. Upper. 
Hatun, 373. Great, 
llatuucuzqui, 373. May. 


Homaraymi Punchaiqui8,376. Eleventh 

Huaca, 300, 308, 318, 323, 325, 340, 

355, 361, 373, 375, 412. Sacred. 
Huaccha, 420 

Huallavicsa, 349. Sacrifice. 
Hualpa, 276, 434. A fowl (in Atahu- 

Huaman, 436. Falcon (in the name 

Huanacu, 277, 341 
Huanani, 281. I warn — In the name. 

Lunahuana (Runahuansc). 
Huanu, 281. Gifano. See also G. de 

la Vega, ii, p. 181 
Huara (Guaras) 373. Breeches. 
Huascar, 434. A chain. 
Huasi, 332. A house. 
Huauque, 312, 323, 373. Brother. 

O. de la Vega, i, p. 314 
Huayna, 198, 313, 433. Youth. 
Huayra, 195, 196, 209, 210. Wind. 

Hunu, 414. An officer over 10,000. 
Inti raymi {see Ynti). 
Ituraymi, 37C. (Ytu). 
Llallahuas, 309. A kind of potato. 
Llama, 288 et seq. 420 
Llimpi, 215. A purple colour. See 

G. de la Vega, ii, j). 473 
Lloque, 355, 436. Left-handed. 
Locro, 234. A kind of potato. 
Machachuay, 305. Serpent. A con- 
stellation. la Vega, ii, 240, 385 
Mama, mother (in mama-cocha, Pucha 

mama, etc.) 
Mama-cocha, 303. The sea. G. de la 

Vega, i, p. 293, 300, 302 
Mama-cuna, 332, 355. Matrons of the 

Virgins. G. de la Vega, i, 293, 300, 

Mamana, a constellation, 305. Balboa, 

p. 58 
Mani, 235. An edible root. 
Miquiquiray, 305. A constellation, 

Balboa, p. 58. 
Mirco, 305. The Southern Cross.' G. 

de la Vega, ii, p. 476, and Balboa, 

p. 58 
Mitimaes, 413. Emigrants. G. de la 

Vega, ii, p. 476 
Morochi, 229. A kind of maize. G. 

de la Vega has Muruchu, ii, p. 355 
Mulli, 264. The molle tree {ScJiinus 

Molle). Cieza de Leon, chap. cxii. 

See also G. de la Vega, i, p. 187 ; 

ii, p. 364, ;J67 
Mullu, 340. A shell. 
Mutti, 230. Boiled maize. G. de la 

Vega, ii, p. 357 

Oca, 235 {Oxalistuherosa). An edible 

Opa-cuna, 362, 369. Baths. Correctly 

Upa from Upani, I wash. 
Otojo {see Usuta) 
Otoronco {see Uturuncu). 
Paccari, 71. Morning. Paccari-tampu 

and its legend are mentioned by G. 

de la Vega, i, lib. i, cap. 15, 18. 

Fernandez, Pt. ii, lib. iii, cap. 5, p. 

125. Balboa, Ondegardo. 
Pacha. Earth, (in the words Pacha- 

camac, Pachayachachic, etc.) 
Pachacamac, 301, 325, 327 ; " Creator 

of the World", G de la Vega, i, p. 

106 ; and ii, pp. 9, 38, 58 
Pachacutec, the Ynca, 430. 
Pacha-mama, 304. " Mother earth". 
Pacha yachachic,301,418,434."Teacher 

of the World". See G. de la Vega, 

i, p. 109 ; ii, p. 56 
Palta, 250 

Panaca. See Apu-Panaca. 
Pancuncu, 376. A torch. See G. de 

la Vega, ii, p. 232 
Papa, 165, 235, 236, 308. Potatoe. 

G. de la Vega, ii, p. 517, 213, 359 
Pirua, 374. A granary. 
Pucara, 427. A fort. 
Puclla, 444. A sham fight. Warlike 

exercise. The word occurs in one 

of the prayers given by Molina, p. 

31. From Pucllani, I play. 
Punchau, 326. Day ; Idol of the Sun. 

See G. de la Vega, i, p. 182 
Puncu (pongo), 156. Door. G. de la 

Vega, ii, p. 240, 312 
Pururaucas, 432. Certain Idols. See 

G. de la Vega, ii, p. 57 
Quinua, 198. {Chenopodium Quinoa), 

G. de la Vega, ii, 5, 7, 213, 357, 367 
Quipu, 406, 407, 426 
Quipucamayoc, 71, 72, 406, 415. See 

G. de la Vega, ii, p. 123 
Quirau, 429. A cradle. (In Vica- 

quirau. ) 
Quiso, 342. An assembly of birds for 

Raymi, 354, 372. Festival. 
Raymi cantara rayquis, 376. Festival. 
Ruua, 281. Man. G. dc la Vega, i, 

p. 35; ii, 181 
Runtu, 276. Egg. G. de la Vega, ii, 

p. 89, 481 
Saparisca, 342. Sacrifice. 
Sapay, 301. Sole. Only. G.delaVega, 

i, p. 95, 324 
Situa, 355, 375. Festival. 
Sora, 230. A strong liquor. G. de la 

Vega, i, p. 277 


Sucanca, 395. Solstitial pillars at 

Suchi, 151. Fish in lake Titicaca. 

G. de la Vega, ii, p. 402 
Suyu, 361. Province. 
Tampu, 287. Inn. 
Taqui, 445. Music. 
Tanga-tanga, 373, Idol at Chuqni- 

saca. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 120. 

Represented the Trinity. 
Tarco-huaman {See Huaman). 
Ttahuantin - Suyu, 414. The four 

provinces. The empire. 
Ti9i Viracocha, 307. Perhaps Tiyi, 

from Atic, conquering. See Quichua 

prayers, given by Molina. 
Titu, 38, 434. A proper name. 
Toco, 432. Window (in Toco-cachi). 
Tomahaui, 197. A cold wind. 
Topatorca, 305. A star. 
Ttanta, 228, 236. Bread. G.dela Vega, 

ii, p. 357 
Uchu, 237. Axi pepper. 
Uiscacha, 283 {Lagidium Peruvianum). 

G. de la Vega, ii, p. 384 
Upa. See Opa. 
Urcu, 341. Male. 
Urin, 436. Lower. 
Urcuchillay, 303. The star Vega. 

Balboa, p. 58 
Usachun, 341. From Usachuni, I ac- 
Usapa, 301. {See Sapay) 
Usuta, 67, 424. Shoes. See G. de la 

Vega, i, p. 82 ; ii, p. 171. 
Uturuncu, 274. Jaquar. G. de la Vega, 

ii, p. 385 
Vicuna, 132, 286. See G. de la Vega, 

ii, 117, 378, 383, 384 
Vilcaronca, 341. A sacrifice. 

Vilca. (In Vilcaronca), 341. Sacred. 

See G. de la Vega, ii, 255, 416. 

Molina, 63, 93, 107 
Villca, 368. A tree, the fruit of which 

is a purgative. {Mo^si.) The juice 

is mingled with Chicha. 
Viracocha, 301, 304, 307, 418, 428, 

434. G. de la Vega, ii, 66 
Xiquimas, 235. An edible root? 
Yachachic. In Pachayachachic, 301, 

418, 428. G. de la Vega, i, 110. 

From Yachami, I teach. 
Yanlli, 342. A thorny tree. 
Yana. Black. 
Yana-cunas, 368, 433. Indians bound 

to service. See Balboa, p. 120, for 

the origin of this servitude. See 

also G. de la Vega, ii, p. 411 
Yana-oca, 235. An edible root. Black 

Ychu, 218, 526. {Stipa Ychn). G. 

de la Vega, i, p. 254. {See Chicho) 
Ychuri, 361. Confession. 
Yllapa, 302, 304, 432. Thunder and 

lightning. G. de la Vega, i, 105, 

182, 275 
Ynca {passim) 
Ynti, 302, 373. Sun. 

Ai)u Ynti, chief sun. 

Churi Ynti, son. 

Ynti Huauque, brother. 

Yntip Ray mi, 374 
Ytu, 376. Feast. 
Yuca, 232 {Jatropha Manihot). lint 

the proper Quichua word is Asipa, 

or Rumu. 
Yupanqui, 355, 356, 411. Virtuous. 



Amaru, see Tupac Amaru 

Atahualpa, 313, 325, 425, 434, 529. 
Son of the great Ynca Huayna 
Ccapac, by a Princess of Quito. He 
usurped the throne of the Yncas 
from his legitimate brother Huascar. 
For an account of the sanguinary 
War of Succession, see G. de la Vega, 
ii, p. 505 to 529. See also Velasco, 
Hlstoria de Quito, vol. ii. Balboa 
also gives a detailed account of the 
war, which he received from the 

officers of Atahualpa at Quito. The 
most authentic account of the arrest 
of Atahualpa at Coxamarca, and of 
his judicial murder, is in the narra- 
tive of Xeres, Pizarro's secretary. 
See also my note at p. 102 of my 
translation of Xeres. 

Caritopa, 432. Don Felipe, grand- 
child of Tupac Ynca Yupanqui. 

Ccapac Yupanqui, 436. The lifth Ynca. 
His reign and death will be found 
described in G. de J a Vega, \, p. 234 



and 269. Hia lineage, called Apu 
Mayta, at ii, p. 531. See also 
Molina, 85, 88 

Coya Cusiliinay, 425. Daughter of 
Tupac Yuca Yupauqui, and sister of 
Huayna Ccapaf. 

Chilicuchi, 434. Atahualpa's general, 
who took Huascar prisoner. This 
is Acosta's form of Challcuchima. 
See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 509. Xeres 
has Chilicuchima, p. 84 to 89. 

Guaynacapa {see Huayna Ccapac). 

Huascar, 425, 434, 529. The legiti- 
mate sou and successor of Huayna 
Ccapac. See the account of the 
birth, and of the rope of gold 
(Huasca) made to celebrate it, in 
G. de la Vega, ii, p. 103 and 422. 
His accession and war with Ata- 
hualpa, ii, p. 505, et seq . 

Huayna Ccapac, 313, 425, 433, 529. 
The twelfth Ynca. His name means 
" the rich youth", or one who, from 
childhood, has been rich in magnani- 
mous deeds. See G. de la Vega, ii, 
p. 345. His three marriages are 
given at, ii, p. 351; his conquests, 
ii, p. 423 to p. 444 ; his remark- 
able saying touching the Sun, ii, 
p. 445 ; the division of the Empire 
between his sons, ii, p. 450 ; his 
will and death, ii, p. 461; the dis- 
covery of his mummified body, i, 
p. 273 ; his lineage, ii, p. 532 

Mama OcUo, 425, 434. The mother 
of Huayna Ccapac. See G. de la 
Vega, ii, 353. 

Manco Ccapac, 71, 429. The first 
Ynca. Acosta says that, after the 
deluge, he came out of the cave at 
Paccaii-tampu. {See Paccari-tampu, 
in the index of Qaichua words.) The 
various accounts of his origin are 
given by G. dela Vega, i, p. 63 to 85, 
and Molina, p. 6 and 74. 

Manco Ynca, 435, 436. Son of Huayna 
Ccapac. See G, de la Vega, ii, pp. 
352, 526. He made an heroic re- 
sistance against the Spaniards, and 
besieged Hernando Pizarro in Cuzco, 
in February 1536. See the second 
] art of G. de la Vega, lib, ii, and 
Ilerrara Dec. v, lib. viii, cap. 4. 
Manco Avas murdered by a party of 
fugitive Spaniards, who had fled to 
him for refuge. G. de la Vega, pt. 
ii, lib. iv, cap. 7. He left three 

Mayta Ccapac, 436. The fourth Ynca. 
For his reign and conquests, see G. 

de la Vega, i, p. 173, 210, 233. For 
his lineage, ii, p. 531. 

Pachacutec, 430. The ninth Ynca. 
The story related by Acosta, re- 
specting his accession, should be 
told of his father, Viracocha. G. 
de la Vega describes his reign, ii, 
201 to 205, and gives his wise say- 
ings, ii, 208, 247. 

Paullu Ynca, 435. A son of Huayna 
Ccapac who was baptized, and ac- 
companied Amalgro on his Chilian 
expedition. Acosta knew his sou 
Don Carlos. Paullu was personally 
known to Cieza de Leon. See 
Cieza de Leon, p. 77 and 224. His 
son Carlos was a schoolfellow of G. 
de la Vega at Cuzco. His grandson, 
Melchor Carlos Ynca, went to Spain 
in 1602, and became a knight of 
Santiago. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 
110, 530. Balboa, p. 304. 

Quizquiz, 434. A general of Ata- 
hualpa. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 

Sayri Tupac, 435. Son of Ynca 
Manco, and grandson of Huayna 
Ccapac. He was baptized in 1553, 
and died at Yucay in 1560, leaving 
a daughter named Ccoya Beatriz, 
the Vv'ife of Don Martin Garcia 
Loyola. Their daughter was Mar- 
chioness of Oropesa. There is a 
picture of the marriage in the 
cathedral at Cuzco. 

Sinchi Rocca, the second Ynca, is 
mentioned by Acosta, 436 

Tambo, Don Juan, 436 

Tarco-huaman, 436. An Ynca not 
given by other authors. Acosta 
makes him the son of Mayta 

Titu ; treasure of Tupac Ynca 
Yupanqui in power of, 433 

Tupac Amaru. Acosta omits the 
first name, 435. He was the 
j'ounger son of Manco Ynca, and 
was unjustly beheaded at Cuzco by 
the Viceroy Toledo in 1571, iv. See 
G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 264, 273 

Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, 425, 433. 
Father of Huayna Ccapac. Eleventh 
Ynca. See G. de la Vega, ii, 91, 
246, 304, 321, 344, 352. His 
lineage, ii, 581. Discovery of his 
mummified body, ii, 273 

Viracocaha Ynca, 300, 307, 361, 418, 

428, 429, 431. The eighth Ynca. 

His history is given fully by G. de 

la Vega, i, p. 341, and ii, 50, 65, 

N N 



245, 483, 450. His sayings, ii, 94. 
His fondness for the vale of Yucay, 
ii, 87. Discovery of his body by 
Polo de Ondegardo, i, 273, and ii, 
p. 91. See also Cieza de Leon, p. 
226, 308, 332, 338, 355, 363, and 
Molina, p. 12, 90, 92, 95. His 
lineage was called Socso Panaca. 
G. de la Vega, ii, p. 331. Acosta 
has Coco Panaca. 

Yahuar - huaccac. Acosta spells it 
Yaguarguaque, 429. The seventh 
Ynca. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 327, 
347, 349. He was dethroned for 
incapacity, ii, 62, 63. His lineage 
was called Ayllu panaca, ii, 531. 
Acosta spells it Ayllu-anaca. 

Ynca Rocca, 313, 429. Sixth Ynca. 

See G. de la Vega, i, p. 226, 322, 
327, 332. His schools, i, p. 335. 
Also ii, 247, 248, 354. His lineage, 
Yncas : their origin, 71, 428 ; use 
of gold by, 191 ; use of coca by, 
246 ; their argument against the 
Sun being God, 311 ; only con- 
fessed to the Sun, 361 ; feasts, 
372 ; divisions of their empire, 414 ; 
their edifices, 415; bridges, 416 ; 
revenues, 418, 419 ; arts, 421 ; 
head-dress, 422 ; marriages, 424, 
425 ; lineage, 429 ; traditions, 
430, 431, 432 ; extent of their em- 
pire, 427 ; last Yncas, 435 ; suc- 
cession, 436 






^6. — Ynca Rocca 
7. — Yahuar Huaccac - 


Q . p. \ Pachacutec, or 
'I Ynca Yupanqui 
11. — Tupac Ynca Yupanqui 
12. — huayna ccapac 


1. — Manco Ccapac 
2. — SiNCHi Rocca 
4. — Ccapac Yupanqui - 
8. — Lloque Yupanqui - 
5. — Mayta Ccapac 
Tarco Htjaman 
Don Juan Tambo - 

Lineage {Acosta) . 


Uneage (Q. de ^°j °f 
7 T7-,„ \ souls m 
la Vega). ^^^^^ 




- 429 

- 429 

- 429 

(Vica-quirau) - 50 
(Ayllu-panaca) - 51 
(Socso-panaca) - 79 


- 432 

(Ynca-panaca) - 99 

Ccapac sylla 
Tumi pampa 

- 433 

- 433 

(Ccapac ayllu) - 18 
(Tumipampa) - 22 


- 436 

- 436 

- 436 

- 436 

- 336 

- 436 

(Chima-panaca) - 40 
(Raurava- panaca) 74 
(Apu Mayta) - 53 
(Hahuarina-panaca) 73 
(Usca Mayta) - 35 


- 436 

Descendants in the time of Garcilasso de la Vega 594 

1 These numbers show the succession, in one line, according to Garcillasso 
de la Vega. Acosta makes two lines spring from Manco Ccapac. 





Acamapich, 436 

Acamapixtli, 468, 470. First king of 

Acatzuitillan, 462 

Acopilco, 460 

Atlacuyavaya, 460 

Axayaca, seventh king of Mexico, 493, 

Autzol, eighth king, 497 

Azcapuzalco, 482 

Chalcas, 460, 517 

Chalco, 489, 517 

Chapultepec, 357, 459, 473. A charm- 
ing retreat near Mexico. 

Chichemecas, 449, 453, 454 

Chimalpopoca, tliird king of Mexico, 
472, 473, 475 

Cholula, 321, 508, 517. A town in 
19° 4' N., twenty leagues east of 

Coatepec, 459, in the district of 
Jalapa ; but there are several places 
of this name. 

Copil, 459, 463 

Cuitlavaca, 486 

Culhuas, peopled Tezcuco, 452, 460 

Culhuacan, king of, 461, 466, 476 

Cuyoacan, 353, 357, near Mexico. 
Here Hernan Cortes founded a con- 
vent of Nuns, and here, according 
to his will, he desired to be buried, 
483. Sorcerer at, 498 

Guatemala, 497 

Guatulco, viii, 400. A port on the 
west coast of Mexico, at the western 
end of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, in 
the Oaxaca province. Here Sir 
Francis Drake landed, viii, n. 

Izcoatl, king of Mexico, 371, 436, 476, 
482, 485 

Iztapalapa, 462 

Iztacal, 462 

Malinalco, 458, 459. A district in 

Marina, Indian woman. Guide to the 
Spaniards, 514 

Mechoacan, 457, 465, 504. A province 
on the shores of the Pacific, for 
eighty leagues. 

Mexi, 457 

Mexico, lakes, 153, 154 ; deities, 305 ; 
burial customs, 315, 316 ; idols, 318, 
319 ; gods, 321 ; sacrifices, 323 ; 
temples, 327 ; priests, 830 ; virgins, 
333 ; monks, 336 ; human sacrifices. 

323 to 350 ; festivals, 356, 357, 377 
to 384 ; unction, 364 ; baptism, 
369 ; marriage, 370 ; writings, 402 ; 
picture writings, 403 ; records, 404 ; 
succession, 436 ; nobility, 438 ; 
warfare, 440 ; knighthood, 441 ; 
schools, 442 ; early inhabitants ; 
449, 450 ; migrations of the Mexi- 
cans, 456 ; foundation of the city, 
462 ; first king, 466 ; floating gar- 
dens, 469 ; death of first king, 470 ; 
second king, 471 ; third king, 473 ; 
power of kings, 474 ; murder of 
third king, 475 ; fourth king, 476 ; 
coronation, 468 ; 477 ; Mexico was 
founded, with the name of Tenoch- 
titlan, in 1327, on a lake in the 
midst of a valley forty leagues 
round. Cortes took the city on 13 
August 1521. Water brought to, 
499 ; entry of Cortes into, 518 ; 
insurrection at, 520 ; Spaniards 
retreat from, 521 ; return of Cortes 
to, 523 

Montezuma I, 487, 488, 493 

Montezuma II, 436 ; character, 500 ; 
household of, 503 ; coronation, 504 ; 
Government of, 505 ; signs and evil 
omens presaging fall of, 506 to 512 ; 
news of the Spaniards, 513 ; em- 
bassy, 514 ; his terror, 516 ; stra- 
tegy, 517 ; submission to Cortes, 
518 ; and death, 520 

Nauincopa, 216 

Navatlacas. Invaders of Mexico, 451 

Quahuanahuac, 453 

Quaxutatlan, 497 

Quetzalcoatl, 384, 508, 514 

Suchimilcos, 452 

Tacuba, 491 

Tenoxtitlan (name of Mexico), 478 

Tepeaca, 504 

Tepanecas, 452, 460, 464, 468, 478, 
480, 481, 485 

Tepotzotlan, 446 

Teuculhuacan, 455 

Tezcatlipuca (Mexican God), 339, 377, 
378, 379, 517 

Tezcuco, 253, 437, 452, 466, 476, 487. 
A town fifteen miles E.N.E. of 
Mexico, at the foot of the hills in 
19o 31' 30" N. Speech of king of, 
501, 502 

Ticocic, 493 



Ti^aapan, 460 
TlatcUulco, 496 
Tocci, 46(1. An idol. 
Tozcoatl, 377 
Tlacael, 436 

Tlacaellel, 478, 479, 481, 484, 487; 
refuses the crown, 491 ; death, 494 
Tlascala, 504, 517, 519, 530 
Tupilciii, 514 
Tula, 459 

Vitzilipuztli (Mexican god), 305, 356, 
455, 457, 460, 463, 469 ; festival of, 
357, 377, 491, 500 

Vitzilovitli, 471 

Zacatecas, 210. A province in the 
north of Mexico on the tropic of 
Cancer, 210 miles long by 177. Its 
tableland is 6,500 feet above the 



Acosta, Bernardo de, brother of the 
autho]', i ; in Mexico, ix 

Christoval de, i ; author of a 

work on the drugs of India, ii, n. 

— Joseph de, the author, his 

birth, i ; becomes a Jesuit, ii ; sails 
for Peru, ii, 56 ; on the isthmus of 
Panama, ii, 263 ; observes the antics 
of monkeys, 285 ; crosses the line, 
iii, 90 ; arrival in Peru, iii ; crosses 
the Andes, his sufferings, 130, 131 ; 
cured of snow blindness, 288 ; goes 
to Lima, v ; at the Council of Lima, 
vii.; his sermon, vii ; sailed for Mex- 
ico, viii, 127, 391, 400 ; his return 
to Spain, ix, 194, 204, 226, 239, 
260, 271 ; had seen the part of the 
heavens unknown to the ancients, 
4 ; his views respecting the peopling 
of America, 46 ; believed that the 
Old and New World were joined, or 
approached near, 60 ; heard about 
the Amazons from a Jesuit who 
had been with Ursua, 82 ; saw the 
comet of 1577 in Peru, 122 ; saw 
camels in Peru, 272 ; knew a man 
who lost his toes by frost-bite, 133 ; 
conversations with Sarmiento's 
pilots, 140 ; saw giants' bones in 
Mexico, 454 ; his publication of the 
first two books of the Natural His- 
tory in Latin, ix, xi ; his religious 
works published at Rome, x ; his 
work, l)e Promulgatione Evangelii, 
xi ; his Natural History publislied 
in Spanish, xii ; editions and trans- 
lations, xiii ; the English transla- 
tion, xiv ; account of, by Antonio, 
XV, n. ; his death at Salamanca, x 
Aguirre, Lope de, the famous pirate 
who descended the river Amazon in 

1560. Acosta heard of the won- 
derful voyage from a Jesuit who, 
when young, was in it, v, 83. He 
has Diego instead of Lope. (See 
Search for El Dorado, Hakluyt So- 
ciety's volume for 1861.) 

Alcoba9a, Diego de, his confession- 
aries in native languages, v 

Almagro, Diego de, allusion to his in- 
vasion of Chile, 133 

Alonzo, Hernando, pilot in the expe- 
dition of Sarmiento, his account of 
the Straits of Magellan, 143 

Alvarado, Pedro de, 521. Li com- 
mand at Mexico. He was the chief 
lieutenant of Hernan Cortes, and 
afterwards conquered Guatemala. 

Antonio, Dr. Nardo, an Italian phy- 
sician, alluded to as quoting from 
the work of Dr. Francisco Her- 
nandez, 261 

Arriaga, Pabl'o Jose de, his work on 
the extirpation of idolatry, v 

Avila, Dr. Francisco de, his work on 
the folk-lore of Huarochiri, v 

Balboa, Blasco Nunez de, discoverer 
of the South Sea, 135 

Bertonio, Ludovico, his Aymara dic- 
tionary, V 

Betanzos, Fray Domingo de, a Domi- 
nican, 531. He was born at Leon, 
and studied at Salamanca, whence 
he went to Rome to seek permis- 
sion from the Pope to become a 
hermit. Having obtained the de- 
sired leave, he went to the Isle of 
Ponza and lived there as a hermit 
for five years. He then became a 
Dominican and, in 1514, he went to 
Hispaniola. In 1526hewiks one of 
the lirst twelve Dominicans who 



went to Mexico. Thence he re- 
moved to Guatemela, and, after 
labouring for many years, he re- 
turned to Spain, and died in the 
monastery of San Pedro at Valla- 

Cabrera, Amador de, possessor of a 
rich quicksilver mine at Huanca- 
velica, which he sold, 216 

Caiiete, Marquis of, 432, 435 

Carbajal, Gutierrez, Bishop of Pla- 
sencia. A ship of his passed 
through the Strait of Magellan, 

Castro, Lope Garcia de, 215. Go- 
vernor of Peru, under the title of 
President of the Audience. He 
succeeded the Viceroy, Conde de 
Nieva, who was assassinated in 1562. 
In his time the quicksilver mines of 
Huancavelica were discovered. He 
colonised the island of Chiloe, 
founding the town of Castro. In 
1567 he despatched the expedition, 
under his young nephew Alvaro de 
Mendana, which discovered the So- 
lomon Islands. In 1567 the Jesuits 
arrived in Peru. Castro was suc- 
ceeded by the Viceroy Toledo in 

Cavendish Thomas, his capture of a 
prize near California, 141 w. 

Centeno, Diego, a vein of silver ore at 
Potosi named after him, 199. A 
man of good family, native of Ciu- 
dad Rodrigo. At the age of twenty 
he came to Peru with Pedro de 
Alvarado in 1534. He fought on 
the side of the Pizarros at the battle 
of Las Salinas on April 26th, 1 538, 
and under Vaca de Castro at Chu- 
pas. He received a rich estate at 
La Plata ( Chuquisaca), in the pro- 
vince of Charcas, where he was 
Alcalde when the Viceroy Blasco 
Nunez Vela published the new 
laws. At first he was opposed to 
them, but he eventually rose against 
Francisco de Almendras, whom Gon- 
ssalo Pizarro had appointed his lieu- 
tenant in Charcas. He seized Al- 
mendras, who was a friend and 
almost a brother to him, and had 
him beheaded at La Plata. Gon- 
zalo Pizarro sent Carbajal against 
Centano, who defeated him several 
times, and he was obliged to hide in 
a cave near Arequipa. On the ar- 
rival of Pedro de la Gasca in Peru 
Centeno again collected a force, bat 

was defeated by Gonzalo Pizarro in 
the battle of Huarina. He escaped 
and joined Gasca at Andahuaylas, 
being present with him at the battle 
of Sacsahuana. He had charge of the 
person of Gonzalo Pizarro until his 
execution. Centeno died in 1549, 
He was a short fair man, with a red 

Columbus Christopher. A nameless 
pilot said to have given the secret 
of the discovery of America to, 54. 
For a full discussion of this story, 
see my note in the first volume of 
my translation of the Royal Com- 
mentaries of Garcilasso de la Vega, 
p. 24. 

Cortez, Hernando, Marques del Valle, 
conqueror of Mexico, 304, 353, 458, 
498 ; his arrival on the coast of 
Mexico, 514 ; march to Mexico, 517, 

518 ; interview with Montezuma, 

519 ; return to Mexico, 523 
Costillas, Geronimo, lost his toes from 

frost bites in Chile, 133. He was a 
native of Zamora, of good family. 
He dissuaded Almagro from ex- 
ecuting Hernando Pizarro, and fled 
from Gonzalo Pizarro to Arequipa 
and Lima. He was afterwards ac- 
tively engaged in the campaign 
against Giron. He had a house at 
Cuzco. (See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 

Drake, Sir Francis, vi ; his passage of 
Magellan Strait, 137 ; his Portu- 
guese pilots land in New Spain, 140 ; 
at Guatulco, viii, n. 

Ercilla, Alonzo de, 136 ; said to have 
written part of his Araucana on 
plantain leaves, 244. For his life 
and writings, see Ticknor's Spanish 
Literature, ii, p. 426. 

Garces, Henrique, a Portuguese, the 
discoverer of the quicksilver mine 
of Huancavelica, 215 

Gasca, President, 429 

Grimston, Edward, English translator 
of Acosta, account of, xiv 

Henriquez, Don Ma,rtin, Viceroy of 
Mexico from 1568 to 1580, and of 
Peru from 1581 to 1583. He was 
a younger son of the Marquis of 
Alcanices. {See Hawkins's Voyages, 
p. 75, n.) Acosta conversed with 
him on the subject of a southern 
continent, vi, 139, 391, 423 ; his 
death, vii. 

Hernandez, Dr. Francisco, 261. He 
was born at Toledo in 1514, and gra- 



duated at Salamanca. In 1570, 
Philip II sent him to Mexico, with 
the cosmographer Francisco Do- 
minguez, to write the natural his- 
tory of that Viceroyalty. He re- 
turned in 1576, but died before he 
could publish the results of his 
labours. He prepared sixteen MS. 
folio volumes, six describing the 
plants, animals, and minerals of New 
Spain, and ten of drawings. Fran- 
cisci Hernandez rerum medicarum 
NovcB Hispanice Thesaurus sen 
plantarum, animalium, mineralium, 
Mexicanorum Ilistoria, tom i, 1648 ; 
ii, 1651, folio. He also translated 
Pliny's Natural History. {See An- 
tonio, Bib. iScript. Hisp., i, p. 432 

Holguin, Dr. Gonzalo, his Quichua 
grammar, v 

Ladrillero, Captain, his account of a 
voyage through the Straits of Ma- 
gellan, 137 

Lancero, a soldier of Peru, cures 
wrought by, 525 

Loaysa, Dr. Don Geronimo de, first 
Archbishop of Lima, 425 ; letter 
from Polo de Ondegardo on the rites 
of the Peruvians, 356. Loaysa was 
native of Truxillo in Estremadura, 
a Dominican, made Bishop of Car- 
thagena in 1537. In 1543 he was 
translated to Lima, which was made 
an Archbishopric in 1548. He 
died at Lima in 1575, and was 
buried in the hospital of Santa 
Ana, which he had founded. 

Magellan, Fernando, his discovery of 
the Strait, 136 

Mandana, Alvaro de, discovered the 
Solomon Islands in 1568, 46, 115 

Matienza, Judge, iv 

Melendez, the Adelantado Pedro, 
affirmed that there was a passage 
north of Florida, 140 ; on whale 
fishing, 150 ; or Menendez ? Pe- 
dro Menendez was a native of 
-Aviles near Oviedo, of a very ancient 
Asturian family. He was a daring 
sea captain. In 1565 Philip II sent 
him with a fleet to conquer Florida. 
He returned, and died at Santander 
in 1574. His nephew Pedro, Mar- 
quis of Aviles, went out to Florida 
with his uncle the Adelantado. He 
was killed by the Indians. Menen- 
dez wrote a report on his examina- 
tion of the east coast of Florida, 

Mendoza, Garcia de, Governor of Chile, 
sent a ship to explore towards the 

Strait of Magellan, 137. Garcia Hur- 
tado de Mendoza, son of the Marquis of 
Canete, was a young man of twenty- 
two when he came to govern Chile 
in 1577, sent by his father the Vice- 
roy of Peru, He made a successful 
war on the Araucanians, and ex- 
plored the archipelago of Chiloe, 
He founded Mendoza on the east 
side of the Andes, and rebuilt An- 
gol and other towns previously aban- 
doned. In 1561 he was superseded 
and returned to Spain. He came out 
as Viceroy of Peru in 1590 until 
1599. His life by Christoval Suarez 
de Figueron was published in 1613. 
{See Hawkins's Voyages, xxviii, 255, 
n, 338, 340. Hakluyt Society's vo- 
lume for 1878.) 

Mogrovejo, Dr. Toribio, Archbishop 
of Lima, vi ; lives of, viii, n. 

Monardes, Dr., on whale fishery, 150; 
on liquid amber, 259 ; on tobacco, 

Narvaez, Pamphilo, landing in Mexico, 

Pizarro, Francisco, conqueror of Peru, 
treasure seized by, 325, 432, 435, 

Pizarro, Gonzalo, 429 

Polo de Ondegardo, iv, v, 304, 313, 
314, 356, 369, 391, 425, 432, 434, 
525, the licentiate, was born at 
Salamanca, and in 1545 he was in 
Peru, with the fame of a very 
learned and prudent man. He was 
a friend of Gonzalo Pizarro, yet 
Gasca made him corregidor of 
Potosi. Afterwards he was corre- 
gidor of Cuzco, when he discovered 
several mummies of the Yncas, 
w^hich were sent to Lima. He was 
the adviser of the Viceroy Toledo, 
and died at Potosi in about 1575, 
very old and rich. His widow mar- 
ried Don Alonzo de Loaysa, a citizen 
of Potosi, and survived until 1603. 
His valuable Relaciones are ad- 
dressed to the Viceroys Marques de 
Canete and Conde de Nieva, 1561- 
71. They show him to have been 
a humane and good man. They 
are in MS. in the Escurial. Another 
MS. of Ondegardo is in the Royal 
Library at Madrid. It is printed in 
the Hakluyt Society's volume for 
1872, p. 151. (See also Prescott's 
Conquest of Peru, i, p. 163.) 

Roa, Juan de, an Austin friar, and 
zealous preacher, 531 



Salinas, Juan de, the Adelantado, his 
entry of the river Amazons, 157 

Sanchez, Father Alonzo. On the 
trade winds, 123 ; Chinese writings, 

Sarmiento, Pedro de Gamboa, vi, 137, 
138. Sarmiento had studied the 
records and ancient traditions of 
the Yucas, one of which told how 
the Ynca Tupac Yupanqui had 
visited the islands far to the west, 
called Ahuachumbi and Nina- 
chumbi. He sailed in the fleet of 
Alvoro de Mendana in 1567, with 
the object of reaching these islands. 
He is believed to have written a 
Historia de los Yncas. In 1579 he 
was sent with a fleet from Lima to 
explore the strait of Magellan. His 
journal was published at Madrid in 
1768. Viaje al estrecho de Magal- 
lanes por el Capitan Pedro Sarmiento 
de Gamboa en los anos 1579 y 1580. 
There is an account of Sarmiento 
and his surveys in Burney's Voyages, 
ii, pp. 3 to 57 

Tobar, Juan de, ix, 391 

Toledo, Francisco de, second son of 
the Count of Oropesa. Viceroy of 
Peru from 1569 to 1581, iii, iv, 137, 
151, 204, 216, 231, 256 

Torres, Eodrigo de. A 
introduced the use of 
for fuel, in mining, 218 

TreQo, Tacomo de, of Milan. A worker 
in brass at 'Madrid. The way his 
workmen preserved themselves from 
the injurious efiects of the fumes of 
quicksilver, 212 

Ursua, Pedro de, commander of the 
expedition down the Amazon in 
1560. {See Aguirre) 157, 171 

Vaca, Cabeza de, 525. In 1527 he 

miller who 
yohu grass 

went as treasurer in the expedition 
of Pamphilo de Narvaez to Florida. 
Narvaez was lost in a storm near 
the mouth of the Mississippi, and 
Cabeza de Vaca took command. He 
and his followers were reduced to 
the necessity of cannibalism, and 
were afterwards made slaves by the 
Indians. He escaped, and, after 
passing through a variety of in- 
credible hardships, reached Mexico. 
He retired to Spain in 1537. He 
was afterwards Governor of Para- 

Valdes, Diego Flores de. The officer 
sent, with Sarmiento, to fortify 
Megellan's straits {see Sarmiento), 

Valencia, Fray Martin de, 531. A 
zealous Franciscan preacher. He 
was a native of Valencia. In 1523 
he was appointed to take out twelve 
Franciscans to Mexico, as their pro- 
vincial. Here he worked zealously 
for the conversion of the Indians. 
He died on a journey from Mexico 
to Tehuantepec, on August 31st, 
1534. He wrote interesting letters 
to Charles V and to the Pope 
Adrian VI, as well as to Friar 
Matthew Weiser, the General of his 
Order, describing the spiritual con- 
quest of Mexico. He was also the 
author of some historical docu- 

Valera, Bias, the Jesuit, v. 

Valle, Marques del. (See Cortes.) 

Velasco, Pedro Fernandez de, intro- 
duced the refining of silver with 
mercury in 1571, 217 

Villaroel, the Spaniard whose servant 
discovered the mines of Potosi, 203 




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